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M i c h i i^ a n 


The Temple of Health 

A Pictorial History of 

The Battle Creek 


by Patsy Gerstner 


A Humanities Journal for Medicine 
and the Health Sciences 


Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2011 witii funding from 

CARL!: Consortium of Academic and Researcii Libraries in Illinois 

The Temple of Health 

A Pictorial History of 

The Battle Creek 


by Patsy Gerstner 

A special issue of 

CADUCEUS: A Humanities Journal for 

Medicine and the Health Sciences 


CADUCEUS: A Humanities Journal for Medicine and the Health Sciences is a peer-reviewed schol- 
arly journal published by the Department of Medical Humanities of Southern Illinois 
University School of Medicine. 

Editors Department of Medical Humanities 

John S. Haller, Jr., Editor Theodore R. LeBlang, Chair 

Phillip V. Davis, Deputy Editor M. Lynne Cleverdon, Assistant to the Chair 

Mary Ellen McElligott, Managing Editor Barbara Mason, Curator, The Pearson Museum 

Sarah L. Peters, Editorial Assistant Jean L. Kirchner, Subscription Manager 

Cadu£eus is produced for the Department of Medical Humanities by the Division of Biomedical 
Communications, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. Linda Clark Ragel, Designer 

Board of Advisors 

James T. H. Connor, Hannah Institute for the History of Medicine; Glen W. Davidson, Doane 
College; M. Patricia Donahue, College of Nursing University o/Zowa; James Edmonson, Cleveland 
Health Sciences Library; Christopher Hoolihan, Edward G. Miner Library, University of Rochester, 
Joel Howell, Clinical Scholars Program, University of Michigan; Ramunas Kondratas, National 
Museum of American History; Adrianne Noe, National Museum of Health and Medicine; Gretchen 
Worden, Matter Museum 

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Caduceus is published three times a year by the Department of Medical Humanities, Southern 
Illinois University School of Medicine. Caduceus is abstracted or indexed by America: History and 
Life, Current Works in the History of Medicine, Historical Abstracts, Index Medicus, Modem Language 
Association International Bibliography of Books and Articles, Center for Agriculture and 
Biosciences International, and Medline, the principal online bibliographic citation base of the 
National Library of Medicine. (Printed on acid-free paper.) 

Editorial and subscription communications should be addressed to: CADUCEUS, The 
Department of Medical Humanities! 113, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, P.O. 
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Copyright 1996 by the Board of Trustees of Southern Illinois University. ISSN No. 0882-6447 


Acknowledgments 1 

Part 1. From Gentle Obscurity to 

Worldly Fame, 1866-1902 2 

Part 2. The Temple Rises from the Ashes 24 

Part 3. The Treatment 38 

Part 4. Never Enough Space 62 

Part 5. A Moment of Glory, 1928 and After 68 

Part 6. The Battle Creek Sanitarium: An Appraisal 78 

Part 7. Further Reading and Notes 88 

Picture Credits 96 

About the Author 99 

In memory of 

Margaret Ruth Clarke Gerstner and 

Katherine Ruth Gerstner Plank 


This volume would not have been possi- 
ble without the work and help of many 
colleagues and friends. Garth ("Duff") 
Stoltz of Batde Creek, Michigan, has been 
responsible almost single-handedly for the 
preservation of thousands of photographs 
and artifacts that bring the Battle Creek 
Sanitarium to life. His enthusiasm, his will- 
ingness to share the collection, and his 
constant readiness to help in the prepara- 
tion of this history have made the work 
not only possible but enjoyable. 

Part of the above collection is owned by 
Duff Stoltz; part is owned by the Adventist 
Heritage Ministry, the offices of which are 
in Silver Spring, Maryland, Alice R. 
Voorheis, president. I wish to thank both 
for permission to use photographs from 
their collections in this volume. I also want 
to thank Elmer J. Martinson, M.D., of 
Wayzata, Minnesota, for permission to use 
photographs of the Sanitarium from the 
Dr. Carl Martinson Library. 

Early in my research, I spent a delightful 
few hours with Gladys Wyles of Berea, 
Ohio, a graduate of the Battle Creek 
Sanitarium Training School for Nurses. 
Her description of the Sanitarium in the 
late 1920s provided a personal sense of 
the Sanitarium's history that I might other- 
wise have missed. My correspondence with 
Doris P. Longman, a graduate of the 
Batde Creek College in nutrition, and Jean 
Stewart Boyd, M.D., who served on the 
Sanitarium's Pavlov Institute staff, provid- 
ed helpful information and interesting 

Any work on the Sanitarium must rely 
to a great extent on the excellent study of 
John Harvey Kellogg by Richard W. 

I am indebted to the W. K. Kellogg 
Foundation of Battle Creek for providing 
funds to assist with travel, photography, 
and publication. Without that help, this 
work would not have been accomplished. 

The Cleveland Medical Library 
Association made the research and writing 
of this monograph possible by encourag- 
ing scholarship by staff members. 

Glen Cemer of Battle Creek and James 
Edmonson of Cleveland, Ohio, donated 
their time and skills to make copies of 
original photographs and published pic- 
tures for use in this pictorial history. 

I hope that each will find this volume a 
measure of my gratitude. 

Fig. 1. The 
Grand Parlor, 
Battle Creek 

Hsalth Reform Institute, 

Battlic Cheek, Mrcrr. 

This Institution is aflffiirabljr located on a, site of twenty 
acres, in the highest part of the pleasant and enterprising 
city of Battle Creek, commanding a fine prospect, and af- 
fording ample opportunities for entertainment, quiet, and 

With a competent corps of Physicians and Helpers, it of- 
fers to the sick inducements that are oflFered by few others. 
Diseases are treated in a thorough and scientific manner, 
and with a degree of success impossible under any other mode 
of treatment. The principal curative agents employed are 

Electricity, Water, S^wedisli Movements, Hot -Air 
Bath, and Russian Tapor Bath. 

BATTLE CREEK is an important station on the Michigan 
Central and Chicago & Lake Huron Railroads, and is easy 
of access from all parts of the country. J5^**For Particulars 
see Circular, sent Free on application. 


Battle Creek, Mich. 

Fig. 2. This advertisement for the forerunner of the Battle Creek Sanitarium appeared 
in the 1870s. 

Part 1 

From Gentle Obscurity to Worldly 
Fame, 1866-1902 

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth 
centuries, the Battle Creek Sanitarium 
was known throughout the United States 
and abroad as the ultimate destination for 
the famous and the ordinary who sought 
relief from nagging physical discomfort 
and the promise of a healthy future. 
Thousands came each year to this institu- 
tion in southern Michigan, affectionately 
referring to it simply as "The San." The 
phenomenal success of the Sanitarium can 
be credited to one man, John Harvey 

In 1876, Kellogg took charge of a small 
ten-year-old health establishment operated 
by Seventh-day Adventists in the tiny ham- 
let of Battle Creek (fig. 2). He turned it 
into one of the greatest health experiments 
of all time, creating a place that was 
revered by its devotees as a temple of 
health. Under Kellogg (fig. 3), the Battle 
Creek Sanitarium grew from a modest 
frame dwelling to an edifice accommodat- 
ing seven hundred guests a day at the end 
of 1900. By 1928, fourteen hundred people 
daily were cared for and catered to by a 
staff of eighteen hundred. One author 
noted in retrospect that the Sanitarium not 
only offered refreshment for the body, 
mind, and spirit but also provided "the 
combined features of a medical boarding- 
house, hospital, religious retreat, country 
club, tent Chatauqua, [and] spa."' 

Kellogg beheved that good health could 
be maintained and that illness could be 

cured through "biologic living," a concept 
heralded far and wide as the Battle Creek 
Idea. The Battle Creek Idea emphasized a 
healthy diet (preferably vegetarian), exer- 
cise, fresh air, water therapies, electrical 
stimulation (especially of the muscles), 
massage, good posture, abstinence from 
such things as alcohol and tobacco, and 
proper clothing that did not require tight 
undergarments (such as corsets) and that 
allowed the body to move in a reasonably 
unrestricted manner. The use of those 
measures to restore and maintain health 
was part of a health reform movement in 
the United States that predated the 

Fig. 3. John 
Harvey Kellogg 
in his early 
twenties, shortly 
after he 
assumed the 
of the Western 
Health Reform 

Patsy Gerstner 3 

Sanitarium, but Kellogg was fond of noting 
that he made the ideas "scientific" for the 
benefit of mankind.^ 

Early Health Reform 

That health reform was of great interest to 
Americans during the first half of the nine- 
teenth century is not surprising. 
Traditionally trained physicians of the day 
were often unsuccessful in their efforts to 
treat illness. Doctors tried to cure by purg- 
ing the body of various substances thought 
to precipitate or contribute to illness. They 
customarily resorted to bloodletting 
and/or large doses of purgatives, emetics, 
and laxatives. Some of the prescribed sub- 
stances, like mercury, were even poisonous. 
All-in-all, treatments were not only unsuc- 
cessful but were often more debilitating or 
deadly than the illness itself 

Harsh and unsuccessful treatment 
encouraged many sufferers to seek alterna- 
tive means for cure, some of which were 
based on the simple replacement of harsh 
substances with mild and relatively harm- 
less drugs. The health reformers, however, 
refused the use of any drug, preferring to 
find relief in only natural means. Many 
such therapies were based on a change in 
diet. Sylvester Graham, who is immortal- 
ized by the Graham cracker, argued in the 
1830s that refined white flour had dam- 
aged the average American's health. In its 
place, he advocated the use of coarser 
whole wheat (or Graham flour) as a way to 
restore health and safeguard against future 
illness. The preferred American diet was 
one of meat— rich in fat and enormous by 
today's standards— but Graham and others 
recommended a vegetarian diet, arguing 
that meat was an unnatural stimulant, dirty 
and poisonous, that encouraged disease. 

Vegetarianism and the other natural 
means of attaining health were popular- 
ized through the so-called Graham 
Boarding Houses and by touring speakers. 
Many influential lecturers were women, 
who encouraged homemakers to take 
charge of their own health and that of 
their families by adopting the principles of 
health reform. Despite the popularity of 
such ideas, however, health reform lacked 
a strong institutional setting in which to 
flourish. That base was provided in part at 
mid-century by a burgeoning number of 
water-cure sanitaria. 

The Water Cure 

The curative powers of plain water had 
been heralded since antiquity, but it was 
the persuasive work of Vincent Priessnitz 
(1799-1851) in Europe that created a great 
international water-cure mania. Priessnitz, 
the son of a Silesian farmer, suffered a seri- 
ous injury as a child. A wagon, a steep hill, 
and a sudden overturn resulted in crushed 
ribs. Doctors warned him that he should 
not expect to recover fully. Young Vincent 
refused to accept that dire prognosis, how- 
ever, and set out to find his own cure. He 
devised a treatment of cold baths and wet 
wraps and gradually regained his health. 
Convinced that his recovery was due to the 
treatment, he began offering it to others in 
1826. Priessnitz attracted widespread atten- 
tion, and by 1842 his cure had made its 
way to England. Within a few months, it 
had crossed the Atlantic. By the mid-1 850s, 
more than two hundred water-cure sani- 
taria dotted the landscape from New York 
(fig. 4) to Wisconsin, promoting the use of 
water, exercise, fresh air, diet, and proper 
clothing as the keys to health— a message 
that the water-curists promoted in their 

4 Temple of Health 




own journal, appropriately called the Water 
Cure Journal and Herald of Reforms, first 
published in 1845.^ 

Although some water-cure sanitaria sur- 
vived into the early twentieth century, most 
began to fade by the mid-1860s. Many 
believers turned their back on the pure, 
soft water that was at the heart of the 
water-cure treatment and instead sought 
relief in mineral waters. At the same time, 
the excessive medical therapies that 
prompted health reform were disappear- 
ing. Although the wave of health reform 
was declining, the ideas embodied in it 
became the foundation for a new institu- 
tion in Battle Creek begun by members of 
the Seventh-day Adventist church. 

The Western Health Reform Institute 

Adventism, a central tenet of which is a 
belief in the second coming of Christ, 
enjoyed considerable popularity in Europe 
and America in the mid-1860s. Seventh-day 
Adventists were the largest Adventist group 
in the United States. Members considered 

their strong-willed leader, Ellen G. White 
(1827-1915), a prophetess. When she 
experienced what she believed to be a 
divine vision instructing her in the 
significance of the principles of health 
reform and the need to have a place where 
its practice could be combined with 
Adventist beliefs and appropriate prayer, 
she urged her fellow believers to establish 
just such a place in Battle Creek."* With her 
personal gift of five hundred dollars. 
White initiated a nationwide fund-raising 
campaign. Her gift, handsome by the day's 
standards, was matched by another leading 
Adventist in Battle Creek, John Preston 
Kellogg, who was the father of ten sons. 
Altogether, eleven thousand dollars was 
raised. With that money, a modest farm in 
Battle Creek was purchased and developed 
as the Western Health Reform Institute 
(fig. 5). Each contributor became a share- 
holder in the Institute, and it was expected 
that the Adventists would continue to 
provide support. 

According to its founders, the Western 

Fig. 4. The 
promoters of the 
Dansville, New 
York, water-cure 
facility pledged: 
"We believe that 
we can cure all 
curable diseases, 
and diseases 
which under 
any other 
treatment are 
incurable. " 

Patsy Gerstner 5 

Fig. 5. The 
Western Health 
Reform Institute 
in 1866 

Health Reform Institute was established 
for "the treatment of disease and [for] 
imparting instruction in the principles of 
Hygiene [health] for compensation and 
also for purposes of benevolence and char- 
ity."^ An early circular stated: 

[N]o drugs whatever, wUI be administered, but 
only such means employed as nature can best 
use in her recuperative work, such as Water, 
Air, Light, Heat, Food, Sleep, Rest, Recreation, 
etc. Our tables will be furnished with a strictly 
healthful diet consisting of Vegetables, Grains, 
and Fruits. And it will be the Aim of the 
Faculty, that aU who spend any length of time 
at this Institute shall go to their homes instruct- 
ed as to the right mode of li\ing, and the best 
methods of home treatment.^ 

The Institute opened in 1866 with a staff 
of two hydropathic (water-cure) doctors 
(Horatio S. Lay and Phoebe Lamson), one 
nurse, and a few helpers. Lay had been 

apprenticed to regular physicians for a 
brief period, but he decided that water 
cure and health reform were more impor- 
tant. At the time that the Institute was 
about to open, he was on the staff of a 
well-known water-cure sanitarium in 
Dansville, New York, run by James Caleb 
Jackson. Lamson had no medical or hydro- 
pathic training at the time she came to the 
Institute, but shortly thereafter she spent a 
winter at the Hygeio-Therapeutic' College 
in Florence Heights, New Jersey.' Its presi- 
dent was Russell Thatcher Trail, who was a 
founder of the Water Cure Journal, the 
author of many health books, an officer of 
the American Vegetarian Society, and the 
proprietor of one of the nation's oldest 
water-cure sanitariums. 

In spite of a promising start and more 
patients than expected, the Institute faced 
an uphill struggle. Demand soon over- 
whelmed the small frame building, and 

6 Temple of Health 

plans were made for expansion. Both plans 
and continued growth in number of 
patients faltered, but after some reorgani- 
zation the future of the Institute looked 
promising. It was clear that more doctors 
were needed. In 1872, James White, Ellen's 
husband and one of the Institute directors, 
asked John Preston Kellogg's oldest son, 
Merritt, to join the staff. A graduate of a 
six-month course at Trail's Hygeio- 
Therapeutic College, Merritt, who was liv- 
ing in California, agreed but wished to 
repeat Trail's course. White decided to 
send Merritt's charismatic younger half 
brother, John Harvey, along with him.^ 

John Harvey, at age twenty the youngest 
of the Kellogg sons, had been studying to 
be a teacher. He had no medical training 
whatsoever but agreed to enroll in Trail's 
college. It was not long, however, before 
John Harvey and Trail disagreed on some 
basic issues of what was to be included in 
his medical education. John Harvey left 
New Jersey and, with the encouragement 
of the Whites, enrolled in the College of 
Medicine and Surgery at the University of 
Michigan. A year later, he went on to 
Bellevue Hospital Medical College of New 
York, from which he received a medical 
degree in 1875. Although traditional med- 
ical schools like the College of Medicine 
and Surgery and Bellevue did not sub- 
scribe to the principles of health reform, 
the Whites believed that it was acceptable, 
even important, for Adventist doctors to 
receive a traditional medical education. 
They thought that by participating in the 
education of a typical physician, the 
reform-minded doctor would be better able 
to combat unacceptable practices.^ 

In 1874, John Harvey Kellogg was elect- 
ed to the board of directors of the Institute 
and served as its secretary. Upon gradua- 

tion in 1875, he was hired by the Institute 
as a physician. He was so successful that 
within months he was offered the position 
of physician-in-chief. He declined, however, 
because he wanted to go to Wilmington, 
Delaware, to write a book and to arrange 
for a health exhibition at the Centennial 
Exposition, the world's fair then underway 
in Philadelphia. Nevertheless, when James 
White resigned as president of the board 
of directors in August 1875, John Harvey 
hurried back to Battle Creek to accept the 
interim presidency; he served until White 
returned later in the year.^" 

In July 1876, the position of physician-in- 
chief was again offered to John Harvey. 
According to the board minutes. Elder 
White was directed to "extend to Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg an urgent invitation" to accept the 
position. '^ That the invitation was charac- 
terized as "urgent" reflected the serious 
problems faced by the Institute. In spite of 
its resurgence at the beginning of the 
decade, its finances were weak, its popular- 
ity once again diminished, the number of 
patients was declining, and the medical 
staff appears to have been in a state of 
chaos. In an effort to save the Institute, the 
directors offered Kellogg a free hand to 
reorganize. Kellogg accepted, and the 
Institute began an odyssey that carried it 
from an obscure Seventh-day Adventist 
experiment to an institution known 
throughout the world. 

The Battle Creek Sanitarium 

Under Kellogg's leadership, the popularity 
and income of the Institute increased rap- 
pidly. He continued the principles of 
health reform advocated at the Institute, 
including diet, exercise— especially the 
resistance exercises developed in Sweden 

Patsy Gerstner 7 

Fig. 6. 

of "Swedish 
movements " 

known as "movement-cure" or "Swedish 
movements" (fig. 6)— fresh air, proper 
clothing, abstinence from stimulants, the 
use of electrical stimulation, and, of 
course, water. To those, he added surgery. 
Before his first year had ended, an addi- 
tion was built onto the main building and 
several Battle Creek cottages were rented 
to house more patients. In 1877, he 
renamed the Institute the Medical and 
Surgical Sanitarium, after which it was 
commonly known as the Battle Creek 
Sanitarium. He believed that the new 
name would become synonymous with "a 
place where people learn to stay well."*^ 

Kellogg advertised the Sanitarium as a 
place especially suited for individuals with 
"chronic nervous disorders, functional dis- 
turbances of the stomach, and other chron- 
ic diseases."^'' The most common problems 
had to do with gastrointestinal upset, usu- 
ally constipation, a condition that many 
health reformers attributed to the con- 

sumption of refined flour. Neurasthenia— a 
vague but popular term defining nervous- 
ness, fatigue, and stress, often affecting 
women— was also a common complaint. 
Women, in fact, represented about half of 
the Sanitarium patients, and they were 
attended to by special staff (fig. 7). 

Throughout the nineteenth century, 
women were often regarded as the "weaker 
sex"— the physical and mental inferiors of 
men— but health reformers customarily dis- 
missed the idea. They argued that 
women's health could be improved by the 
same things that improved men's health, 
namely, exercise, diet, and fresh air. 
Kellogg believed that women were weaker 
only because of their own doing, not as the 
inevitable result of nature. "Women," 
Kellogg once wrote, "have become so 
accustomed to hearing themselves called 
the 'weaker vessel' that they have come to 
consider themselves as such. The average 
woman supinely says, T am expected to be 
an invalid; I am supposed to be sick and 
weak, because I am a woman. '"^* Kellogg 
expected women to embrace all of the 
Sanitarium activities offered to men (figs. 
8, 9). If a woman arrived without proper 
clothing, she was encouraged to visit the 
Sewing Department, where an appropriate 
wardrobe was prepared for the rest of her 
stay (fig. 10). Kellogg's idea of a proper 
dress was one that was warm but not 
heavy, did not gather dirt from the 
ground, and did not require tight under- 

Growing popularity stressed the 
Sanitarium beyond its limits. Before 
becoming chief physician, Kellogg had 
been a member of a committee to draw up 
plans for a new building. The time was 
right, and buoyed by the profits from the 
burgeoning enterprise and a special drive 
launched by James White for $25,000, 

8 Temple of Health 

Fig. 7. A group of bath attendants for ladies in 1878 

Fig. 8. Women and men share a workout in the gymnasium, 

Fig. 10. The Sewing Department, ca. 1915 

Fig. 9. A turn at the boxing bag 1910 

Fig. 11. 
Exterior of the 
1878 building 

Fig. 12. First-floor diagram of the 1878 
building: A, parlor; B, reception room; 
C, counting room; D, main hall; 
E, gymnasium; F, dining room; 
G, laboratory; H, physicians ' office; 
a, library; b, ladies ' washroom; 
c, elevator; d, cloakroom; e, washroom; 
f, water closet; g, drying room; h, electric 
room; i, dressing room;j, packing room; 
k, general bathroom; I, Turkish, Russian, 
and electro-vapor bathrooms; and 
m, clothes room 

Kellogg set about implementing those 
designs. ^^ Although the total amount need- 
ed was not reached, the Sanitarium was 
able to borrow enough money to construct 
a building that, fully equipped, cost more 
than $50,000. 

The new building, which had a capacity 
of three hundred guests, was completed in 
1877 and opened in 1878 (figs. 11, 12). 
Designed by architect W. K. Loughborough 
of Battle Creek, it was said to "constitute 
the largest and most perfectly constructed 
edifice of its kind in America [and] the 
only one, of any note, specially built for, 
and adapted to, the purpose of a hygienic 
hospital and home for the sick."^^ The 
Sanitarium was set on an elevation, which 
Kellogg thought provided more and better 

fresh air. The climate was free from great 
extremes of temperature, and the whole 
setting was restful and conducive to peace 
of mind and healthy living. 

The main building was four stories high, 
measuring 150' x 50'. A rear extension, 60' 
X 60', contained facilities for treatment. 
The building was faced with brick, and the 
mansard roof was shingled and painted to 
resemble slate. A porch, supported by 
stone pillars with stone steps on each side, 
provided an inviting entrance and was con- 
structed so that visitors could alight direct- 
ly from a carriage. A center front tower, 
extending a full fifteen feet above the roof, 
created an imposing facade. A conservato- 
ry located on the second floor of the tower 
provided guests with a peaceful place to 

Fig. 13. A 
Grand Parlor 
audience awaits 
a lecture; the 
inset shows 
a doctor 
interviewing a 

Patsy Gerstner 1 1 

Fig. 14. A typical Sanitarium guest 
room, 1888 

Fig. 15. Rate card from 

j^xpenses, • Etc. 

T'ik; folloivinj r.itcs for bo.ird and treatment Include in the price for each room nr 
table board ;tu-o mcah a day), medical attention, and regular treatment, consistinf; of two i 
mcnts daily in the treatment rooms.^^ne in the bath-rooms, and one in the mechanical r 

Smgle room in Main Building $10.50 to 520. 

Suite of two rooms in Main Buildmg. occupied by one person. $16 to $;,-. 
Two persons in single room. each. . . $10 to $l5;0. 

Single room in Cottage $10 to $15. 

The difference in prices of rooms is chiefly due to difference in location, style of fornishin; 
Board, without treatment, per weeU. . . . $6 to $14. 

Meals in room, extra, each. ..... 10 cts. 

Regular meals in room, cttra, per week. .... $l.;o. 

Half Nurse $4 to $5,50. 

Examination of new patients $;. 

No charge for office consultation or examination of old patients. 

For office treatment for eye, ear, or other specialties, a small extra fee is charged. 
For surgical operations a charge is made according to the nature of the operation am 
circumstances of the patient 

Special rates are miHe to physicians and clergymen and their families, and to wortli 
jects of charity. 

A steam laundry connected with the Institution does laundry work at moderate rate;. 

ir/ial to .5n«i'.— Each patient should bring with him the following articles for use 
;h treatment , or, if preferred, they may be cheaply purchased or rented here 
Turkish or cotton bath sheets, two woolen blankets, four towels, (Turkish preferred), ai 
yards of heavy white or gray flannel. 

Hacks will be found at all trains, and patients are received at the Sanitarium at all 

Street cars run from the railway stations to the Sanitarium, 
Telephone and telegraph connections. 

Bi^* Feeble persons requiring special assistance should, on starting from home, tclegr; 
time at which they will arrive, and they will be met at the train by an assistant from the Inst 

Any further information desired may be obtained by addressing the Medical Siiperin; 
Dr J. H. Kkllogi-.. Battle Creek, Mich. 

Estimates to cover total expense given when desired. 

.l/.J.V. /(.".TAW Sm.v/ TAK. 


rest— an environment where "rare and exot- 
ic flowers and shrubs make a summer all 
the year; [where] delicate vines trail over 
the sash, and the luxuriance of growth and 
color . . . makes the little bijou of a garden 
seem like a stray morsel of the sunny 

The building was magnificent for its 
time, with every detail carefully planned by 
Kellogg. A Grand Parlor on the first floor 
provided a pleasant meeting place for 
guests (fig. 13) and became the site of lec- 
tures by Kellogg or a guest speaker on 
Wednesdays and Fridays at 9:00 A.M., when 
the topic might be the evils of tobacco or 
the importance of diet. On Mondays, 
Kellogg met with guests to answer ques- 
tions that had been dropped in the 
"Question Box," which became a perma- 
nent feature of the Grand Parlor. On 
Tuesday afternoons, there were lectures 
for women only. 

Guest rooms were large, measuring at 
least ir X 15' (fig. 14), and suites of rooms 
were available on the corners of the sec- 
ond floor. Such spacious and comfortable 
accommodations belied an association 
with medical care. A stay at the Sanitarium 
was, in fact, not unlike a stay at an elegant 
hotel, although by the late 1880s at $10 to 
$20 per day for a single room (without 
treatment), the Sanitarium was more 
expensive than most hotels (fig. 15). 

Despite Kellogg's setting of comfort and 
gentility, the actual business at hand was 
health, and guests spent their days in its 
pursuit. Physicians' offices, the gymnasi- 
um, and a laboratory dominated the lobby, 
while the rear extension of the building 
included space for Turkish, Russian, elec- 
tro-vapor, and fifty other kinds of baths. 
There was a room for electric treatments 
and for Swedish movements. Because the 
light, heat, and burning rays of the sun 

were all considered healthful, there was 
even a room for sunbathing. In summer, 
exercises were moved to the 'outdoors so 
that the fresh air itself became part of the 
treatment for, as Kellogg often noted, 
"God's oxygen is the best tonic known." '^ 
During the summer months, the gymnasi- 
um was used as an extension of the dining 
room to accommodate a greater number 
of guests (see diagram at fig. 12). 

To further ensure the patients' health 
and comfort, Kellogg had pure water piped 
to the building from wells a half mile dis- 
tant. The water was not allowed to come 
into contact with lead or other materials, 
which Kellogg recognized as potentially 
dangerous. At a cost of nearly $10,000, the 
most modern heating and ventilating sys- 
tems were installed, and both hot and cold 
water were piped to every room. The 
building was heated by steam that was gen- 
erated by two "immense" boilers in the 
basement, and each room had a radiator. 
Fresh air was circulated to every room by a 
system of ducts. Air entered the building 
through a large, main duct that ran verti- 
cally through the building, branching off 
to every room. Other ducts carried away 
stale air. The stale air was pulled out by a 
draft created by the heat of the smokestack 
(rising from furnaces in the basement) that 
passed through the central duct. Food was 
cooked with steam and delivered from the 
basement kitchen to the upper floors via a 
dumbwaiter. The building was lighted 
throughout with gas manufactured in the 
basement from gasoline. Kellogg consid- 
ered his product to be cleaner than com- 
mercially available gas. 

A Prophecy Fulfilled 

In 1877, Adventists had proclaimed that 
the Sanitarium was destined "to wield a 
mighty influence in the world, and to be a 

Patsy Gerstner 13 

Fig. 16. The 
completed in 

powerful means of breaking down the old, 
pernicious autocracy of empirical medical 
practice, and of encouraging sanitary 
[health] reform. "2" By the early 1880s, the 
ever-growing popularity of the Sanitarium 
suggested that the prediction was rapidly 
becoming reality. In fact, despite the 
grandness of the new facility, it, too, 
became overcrowded. 

Kellogg proposed an addition costing 
another $50,000. Again with borrowed 
money— and over the objections of Ellen 
White— an addition was designed for the 
south end of the building and opened in 
1884, increasing the Sanitarium's capacity 
by more than 50 percent. The addition not 
only expanded the space for various treat- 
ments (particularly the popular water ther- 

apies) but offered the latest conveniences. 
By 1888, electric lights had replaced the 
gas fixtures. 

Fountains and serene landscaping con- 
tinued to enhance the natural beauty of 
the setting, as an 1880s publications 

The spacious grounds about and in front 
of the Main Building are laid out in beautiful 
lawns, studded with natural forest trees and 
ornamental trees and shrubs. Two fine 
groves afford a pleasant shade for out-of- 
door recreation in summer. 

In front of the main entrance, a large 
fountain adds beauty to the view, and moist- 
ens and purifies the air with its cooling 
spray. From the roof and verandas, and 
most of the private rooms, is commanded a 

14 Temple of Health 

most delightful view of natural scenery in 
great variety; high distant hills, rolling fields, 
groves, meadows, rivers, little lakes and 
winding brooks, with the pleasant litde city 
close at hand, make up a view which is rarely 
excelled in the Middle States. ^^ 

During the summer, Sanitarium guests 
who preferred an even more sylvan setting 
for their stay could reserve a room in a 
boardinghouse at Lake Goguac, about two 
miles from the Sanitarium and a popular 
playground for Battle Creek residents. The 
Sanitarium leased a desirable portion of 
the shore for its exclusive use and con- 
structed the boardinghouse sometime in 
the 1890s. A large pavilion provided shel- 
ter for picnics. 

In 1888, a separate hospital building was 
erected, capable of accommodating two 
hundred persons (fig. 16). Previously, 
guests in need of hospital care had been 
cared for in a section of the main building. 
The new building had a twofold purpose: 
First, it isolated the seriously ill and the 
surgical patients; second, it housed indi- 
gent patients. ^^ From its very beginning as 
the Western Health Reform Institute, the 
Sanitarium had accommodated charity 
patients, and the new hospital building 
provided space for an ever-increasing num- 
ber of those patients. 

Kellogg, who considered surgery one of 
his specialties, often spent long days in the 
operating room. He was proud of the "up- 
to-date operating rooms, aseptic wards, 
and conscientious surgical nurses and assis- 
tants [who] make this department success- 
ful in saving the lives of hundreds of cases 
annually."^^ While Kellogg attributed a 
high success rate in surgeries performed at 
the Sanitarium to those factors, he 
believed that the critical factor in success- 
ful surgery was the patient's participation 

in the total treatment program. Diet, exer- 
cise, appropriate baths, and so forth 
strengthened the patient, creating a strong 
system to endure and overcome the haz- 
ards of surgery. 

Some time between 1884 and 1888, 
Kellogg added an "aseptic maternity" and 
a department for the treatment of the dis- 
eases of women. He believed that, as with 
surgical patients, the Battle Creek regimen 
would improve the general condition of 
women and go a long way toward eliminat- 
ing gender-specific disease and the trauma 
commonly associated with childbirth. 

Kellogg was ever alert to the comfort 
and convenience of guests, and he con- 
stantly sought to make their stay more 
pleasant and worry free. In 1886 he 
opened a nursery and kindergarten for 
young children, thus ensuring that parents 
could participate fully in Sanitarium pro- 
grams. Children were not required to fol- 
low the Sanitarium health regimen, but 
elementary principles of healthy living 
were introduced in the nursery when possi- 

Expansion was ongoing. In 1891, a sec- 
ond addition was made (at the north end 
of the main building), and in 1895 an 
entire story was added to the main build- 
ing (fig. 17). As Kellogg neared the twenti- 
eth anniversary of taking leadership of the 
Sanitarium, the future seemed bright. In 
addition to the impressive 1878 building 
and its many additions, there were twenty 
guest cottages, three dairy and small fruit 
and garden farms, the Lake Goguac facili- 
ty, dormitories for nurses, and a building 
devoted to offices and laboratories on the 
campus of Battle Creek College (a Seventh- 
day Adventist school just across the street 
from the Sanitarium). There was no want 
for guests. While the Sanitarium grew and 
prospered, Kellogg also worked to make 

Patsy Gerstner 15 

sure that its sphere of influence reached 
far beyond its physical boundaries. 

Supplying the Nation witli Proper Food 

An essential part of the health reform 
movement concerned diet. At the Western 
Health Reform Institute and at earlier 
water-cure establishments, vegetarianism 
was recommended, if not always insisted 
upon. Kellogg, himself a vegetarian, 
allowed meat to be served at the 
Sanitarium until about 1890, but he 
encouraged his patients to eat wholesome 
grains in addition to, or rather than, meat 
(fig. 18). The problem with grain, however, 
was in the eating. Grains were hard, and 
although they could be soaked or boiled 
for easier eating, they remained at best a 
pulpy, indigestible mass with bits of grain 
so hard that they could— and did— break 

In 1877, in an effort to improve the 
Sanitarium menu, Kellogg developed a 
small biscuit made of oats, corn, and 
wheat, which he baked for a long time. He 
thought that the prolonged baking would 
break down starch in the grains, making 
them easier to digest. He named his prod- 
uct Granula, after a whole-wheat product 
developed by an early health reformer; 
threatened lawsuits over the name, howev- 
er, caused him to change the name to 
Granola. The biscuit was such a success 
with patients that soon Kellogg promoted 
it for sale outside the Sanitarium, offering 
it as the perfect food for the "tired editor, 
the overwrought financier, the worn-out 
teacher, the exhausted clerk and the stu- 
dious scholar . . . the food par excellence 
for the laboring man's breakfast. "^^ With 
that venture, Kellogg entered the business 
world, created a major health food indus- 

Fig. 17. By 
1895, the 
had been 
enlarged with a 
fifth story plus 
two additions. 

16 Temple of Health 

try, and played a key role in the develop- 
ment of America's giant cereal industry. 

Although popular, Granola remained 
difficult to eat because the bits of whole 
grain were hard. Kellogg and his brother 
William K. ("W. K.") Kellogg, who served 
as accountant and business manager at the 
Sanitarium, worked together to improve 
the edibility of grains, and they discovered 
a way to make thin flakes of the grain, 
flakes that were easy to chew and easy to 

The first flaked product, Granose, was 
marketed in 1894. Other flaked cereals 
soon followed— including cornflakes. The 
Sanitarium directors agreed to underwrite 
the cost of producing and marketing 
Granola and the first flaked cereals, which 
were sold nationally under the name Battle 
Creek Sanitarium Health Food Company. 
Business was so good that a cereal factory 
was opened near the Sanitarium, and addi- 
tional space was soon needed. The 
Sanitarium directors were unwilling to 
underwrite the cost of that additional 
space, however. Consequently, the Kellogg 
brothers opened an independent cereal 
factory, which they incorporated as the 
Sanitas Food Company. Although the 
Kelloggs together developed the grain- 
flaking process on which the cereal indus- 
try is based, it was the marketing genius of 
W. K. that made flaked cereals a household 
necessity in the twentieth century. ^^ 

John Harvey Kellogg also developed and 
marketed several other products, including 
many based on nuts. About 1890, he elimi- 
nated meat from Sanitarium menu options 
because he believed that it was difficult to 
digest and filled with germs. For the same 
reasons, he eventually banned dairy prod- 
ucts. Nuts, he believed, were an excellent 
substitute for meat and milk. Among the 
nut products were Bromose, which he con- 

sidered the vegetable equivalent of malted 
milk, Nuttose, a substitute for meat, and 
Malted Nuts, a substitute for milk. Malted 
Nuts was, he thought, an especially good 
substitute for cow's milk because it was eas- 
ily digested by those who were sensitive to 
milk sugar. It was also a good substitute for 
mother's milk and cow's milk because it 
was rich in iron, which neither of the oth- 
ers are. 

Several nut butters were also developed, 
including a type of peanut butter in 1892. 
Unlike today's popular varieties (which are 
made from roasted nuts), Kellogg steam- 
cooked the nuts because he believed that the 
roasting process altered the nut's fat content 
in such a way as to irritate digestion. 

He also developed grain-based artificial 
coffees, among them Minute Brew and 
Caramel Cereal Coffee. The latter enjoyed 

Fig. 18. This 
1888 menu 
offered beef and 
lamb as well as 
a multitude of 
grains, and 
fruits. Around 
1890, Kellogg 
eliminated meat 
from the 

Patsy Gerstner 1 7 

Fig. 19. The 
School for 
Nurses opened 
in 1883 with a 
six-month pro- 
gram. It grew to 
a full two-year 

— :==^==::— ^ FOR NURSES. -^=c=^^ 

I^cyular -pci'n^s bcgirj XoV. 1. Students Received at ^x\y ^iii\c. 


This School has now been in oper- 
ation for Jive years, with con- 
stantly increasing' patronage and 

vJIouvsc of instruction. 

The course of instruction com- 
prises two series of lectures, reci- 
tations and practical instruction, 
continuing through two years. 

iUetl)oi)s of 3ustrurtion. 

The instruction is both theoret- 
ical and practical. Several lectures 
\nd rt-citations are given each week. Lectures 
arc illustrated by means of colored charts, 
models fine French Manikins, and numerous 
(.xpLriments Lich student is required to become 
fimilnr with the subjects t:iught, by actual practice. 
The following are among the leading topics taught : 
Anatovi) Physiology ; Elementary Chemistry ; Na- 
ture ami Causts of Disease; Language of Disease; 
Pimapli': of Cuil Management' of Common Diseases; 
Du\siiig of SimpU Wounds and Injuries; General and 
Individual Hygiene; ]'entilation; Disinfection; Air and 
Water Contamination; General Nursing; Surgical Nursing; 
Monthly Nursing; Bandaging; Hydrotherapj — theoretical and practi- 
cal; Electricity — Faradic, Galvanic, Static ; Diet for the Sick ; Massage; Swed- 
Calisthenics; What to Do in Emergencies. 

ish Movements , 

Special ^bDiintagce. 

The advnntai;es olTcrcd b\- tliis school arc ia mail)- n.-S]jixts; superior to those offered by any 
:itlicr. lint excepting tlio older sc'.iools ill the l.irge cities. 

Tl UMS. — Students pay board and t lilion in labor the first ; wages are paid the second year. 

For Circulars giving full information, address, 

SANITA.RIUM, Bmtle CreeR, Micla. 

considerable popularity but was displaced 
by a similar product called Postum, which 
was developed by future cereal magnate C. 
W. Post.2'' 

Spreading the Word 

Kellogg recognized the importance of edu- 
cating teachers and practitioners who 
could carry the Sanitarium principles to 
others. During his first two decades at the 
Sanitarium, he established several schools 
where medical students, aspiring medical 
missionaries, nurses, dietitians, and others 
were trained to treat and care for the sick. 

The first school opened in 1878. It was 
the School for Hygiene, which consisted of 
a twenty-week session during which 
prospective Seventh-day Adventist medical 
students were taught diet, hygiene, dress, 
and hydrotherapy. The school lapsed for a 
few years, but in 1889 the School of 
Hygiene became the Sanitarium Training 
School for Medical Missionaries, which sur- 
vived until the early twentieth century. 

Nurses were trained at the Sanitarium 
Training School for Nurses, which opened 
in 1883. A six-month training program at 
the outset, it was quickly increased to two 
years. The program included work at the 
Sanitarium, and many graduates stayed on 
as full-time employees (fig. 19). In fact, for 
a period of time, only students who would 
agree to work for the Sanitarium for five 
years after graduation were accepted. ^^ 

In 1888, Kellogg and his wife Ella 
opened the School of Domestic Economy, 
offering a twenty-five-week course that 
included cooking, dressmaking, general 
housework, and hygiene. It was absorbed a 
few years later in the Training School for 
Medical Missionaries; when that program 
was discontinued, the School of Domestic 
Economy reappeared about 1905 as the 
Battle Creek Sanitarium School of Health 

and Home Economics. Its main purpose 
was to train dietitians for hospitals, private 
clubs, schools, and factory cafeterias. As 
late as 1919, a two-year course was initiated 
to prepare young women to teach home 
economics in elementary and secondary 
schools. ^^ 

The American Medical Missionary 
College (not to be confused with the 
Training School for Medical Missionaries), 
was established in 1895 to train Seventh- 
day Adventists who wanted to be physi- 
cians.^" Kellogg had once trained 
physicians through private instruction. 
When that was no longer possible because 
of changes in state laws concerning 
requirements for medical education, 
Adventists were sent to the University of 
Michigan for their training in medicine. 
While at Michigan, some students gave up 
their interest in health reform in favor of 
the kind of standard medicine being 
taught at the University. To keep Adventist 
students from being thus corrupted, 
Kellogg and several Adventist leaders orga- 
nized the American Medical Missionary 
College. Kellogg presided over the school, 
which operated under an Illinois charter. 
Classes were conducted in both Battle 
Creek and Chicago. The school took only 
students who promised to work as medical 
missionaries the rest of their lives. The 
school merged with the Medical School of 
the University of Illinois in 1910. 

Kellogg also instituted a Normal School 
of Physical Education, where students were 
trained in the art of exercising (see outside 
back cover). 

Taking tlie Sanitarium to Otiiers 

In 1893, under Kellogg's urging, the 
Seventh-day Adventists established the 
Medical Missionary and Benevolent 
Association. Between then and 1903, the 

Patsy Gerstner 19 

Fig. 20. An 



restaurant and 

treatment room, 



Association established over thirty branch 
sanitaria, treatment rooms, vegetarian 
restaurants (fig. 20), and urban medical 
missions, located in such diverse places as 
Guadalajara, Honolulu, Philadelphia, Des 
Moines, Little Rock, Chicago, Lincoln, and 
Portland, Oregon. Kellogg served as presi- 
dent until the dissolution of the associa- 

tion in 1906. The activities were financed 
by local Adventist conferences and by spe- 
cial fund-raising activities, usually led by 

A branch was opened in Chicago in 
1893, coinciding with the opening of the 
Columbian Exposition, or Chicago world's 
fair. It was funded by two Adventists, the 

20 Temple of Health 

brothers Francis and Henry Wessels, who 
had profited from a diamond strike on 
family property in South Africa. Profits 
from this branch were used to open an 
urban mission that same year, providing 
free treatment with water and with electric- 
ity, a dispensary, obstetrical care, and laun- 
dry facilities (since the poor seldom had 
the opportunity to launder clothing). ^^ 
Battle Creek foods were also supplied. 
After 1895, the American Medical 
Missionary College in Chicago became an 
integral part of the work of the urban mis- 
sion (fig. 21). Students set up additional 
programs in diet, dress, and gymnastics, 
and they also became involved in many 
social welfare activities. In 1896, the mis- 
sion purchased a nearby abandoned 
church and converted it into a "working- 
man's home," providing shelter and food 
to indigent men.^^ 

A visiting nurses program was imple- 
mented soon after the mission's founding. 
The nurses, who came to Chicago from 
Battle Creek, visited the impoverished sick 
of Chicago, bringing the Battle Creek 
treatments to them. Many nurses who 
came to Chicago actually went to work for 
wealthy families in order to provide money 
for the others to carry on the charitable 
work of the mission. 

Changing the Operating Structure 

The Sanitarium operated much like a non- 
profit organization does today. Its income 
was put back into the facility and toward 
programs to encourage health reform. A 
portion of the income was used to fund 
charitable programs. The Sanitarium was 
legally in the hands of a board represent- 
ing Seventh-day Adventists, but Kellogg 
(who was by his own description "naturally 
strong willed, pugnacious, controversial, 
and skeptical") exercised full control of the 

Sanitarium and also had the voting rights 
of a board member.^^ Seventh-day 
Adventist patron Ellen White maintained a 
strong and occasionally confrontational 
presence in Sanitarium affairs. In 1884, for 
example, she had opposed expansion 
because she feared that the Sanitarium was 
becoming nondenominational and too 
much like a hotel.^'' She and her late hus- 
band James (who died after a very brief ill- 
ness in 1881) had established the Institute 
as a place of spiritual and physical healing 
for Seventh-day Adventists; although she 
had never intended to close it to others, 
she considered an emphasis on the spiritu- 
al teaching of Adventism essential. Because 
Kellogg believed that his Battle Creek Idea 
should be available to all people, he 
refused to either promote the Sanitarium 
as a Seventh-day Adventist institution or to 
make spiritual healing an essential part of 
the Battle Creek Idea.^^ He acted to make 
sure that his ideas prevailed. 

In 1897, as the Adventists were nearing 
the end of their thirty-year charter with 
State of Michigan, the board of directors 
allowed the institution to go into receiver- 
ship (thus effectively declaring bankrupt- 
cy). That was probably a legal maneuver 
intended to avoid paying taxes. Kellogg was 
appointed receiver, and a new legal entity— 
the Michigan Sanitarium and Benevolent 
Association— was organized to purchase the 
Sanitarium. Kellogg worked to make sure 
that the property was not purchased by 
commercially-minded investors, primarily 
by showing them that the costs of running 
the Sanitarium would escalate under any 
arrangement other than the current one. 
One of his principal arguments was that 
staff members who were willing to work for 
low wages under him would insist on higher 
salaries under other management. His argu- 
ments were convincing, and his Sanitarium 

Patsy Gerstner 2 1 

Fig. 21. The 
dispensary of the 
Chicago Mission 

Fig. 22. John Harvey Kellogg (seated in the middle of the second row) poses with some members of the medical 
and nursing staff about 1895. Female and male physicians are distinguishable in streetclothes; female physi- 
cians always served on the medical staff. Male nurses are absent from this picture, but their numbers were 
nearly equal to those of female nurses. 

Association successfully bought all the 
facilities at public auction in 1898 for the 
cost of outstanding debts. ^^ 

Under the new charter, original share- 
holders could nominate one person for 
membership in the new Sanitarium 
Association for each share of stock held, 
but voting rights were limited to sharehold- 
ers who attended meetings in Battle Creek. 
As shareholders lived all over the country, 
the voting population was effectively limit- 
ed to those who lived in or near Battle 
Creek. Ellen White had deserted Battle 
Creek in favor of California, where she 
looked forward to establishing new 
Seventh-day Adventist missions (a move 

that resulted in the establishment of the 
College of Medical Evangelists, which later 
became the Loma Linda University School 
of Medicine). The majority of Battle 
Creek shareholders ratified Kellogg's arti- 
cles of incorporation, which stipulated that 
the Sanitarium was to be nondenomina- 
tional and nonsectarian.^'' 

The Sanitarium entered the twentieth 
century with well-established medical pro- 
grams, a large clientele, and a secure oper- 
ating structure. At peak season it cared for 
seven hundred patients and had a staff of 
one thousand people (fig. 22). In the midst 
of success, however, disaster struck. 

Patsy Gerstner 23 

Fig. 23. The fire 

Part 2 

The Temple Rises 
from the Ashes 

In the early morning hours of February 
18, 1902, a devastating fire broke out, 
burning the main Sanitarium building and 
the hospital to the ground (fig. 23). The 
cause of the fire was never determined. It 
originated either in a chemical laboratory 
or in the treatment wing, which was near 
the furnace. 

The fire burned for nearly two hours. 
When it was over, virtually nothing was 
left. When the central part of the main 
building was constructed in 1877, all rea- 
sonable precautions had been taken to 
guard against fire: Hoses connected to the 
main water supply were installed on every 
floor, escape stairways were built on the 
outside of the building, rescue ladders 
were kept at hand, and male employees 
were organized in a fire company that was 
prepared to go into action should the occa- 
sion arise. Each floor of the addition was 
separated by supposedly fireproof materi- 
als. Once underway, however, the fire was 
unstoppable because under the brick 
facade was a wooden structure. The great 
ventilating ducts that provided fresh air to 
the patients tragically added a draft to the 
conflagration. Because the Sanitarium was 
atop a hill (and therefore level with rather 
than below the local waterworks), 
firefighters were hampered by low water 
pressure. ^^ 

The lost Sanitarium property, which 
included the hospital, was valued as high 
as $400,000, and the loss of guests' person- 
al property was as high as $500,000.^^ 
Fortunately, the advance precautions did 
save lives, and miraculously only one 
patient died in the fire, an eighty-three- 
year-old man. Kellogg was on his way to 

Patsy Gerstner 25 

Fig. 24. A 
group of 
employees by 
the ruins 

California by train at the time of the fire, 
but he was notified en route and returned 

For a few Seventh-day Adventists, the 
disaster seemed to be a warning that the 
Sanitarium had, indeed, become too 
worldly. Some even claimed to have seen 
the silhouette of a black horse with 
"extended head, open mouth and distend- 
ed eyes, and the ears lying back on the 
head," on an untouched white wall in the 
ruins, surely a sign that the end of the 
world was near at hand.^'' To John Harvey 
Kellogg the fire was not a sign of anything. 
It was a disaster that called for immediate 
action, and he began at once to plan a new 
building (fig. 24). Rumors multiplied by 
the hour suggesting that the Sanitarium 
was to be moved to another location or 
that someone else would buy it, but 
Kellogg promised that if the city of Battle 
Creek backed him and his staff, he would 
rebuild and give the world a facility with- 
out parallel. 

There were many reasons why the 
Sanitarium should stay in Battle Creek. 
Although continued expansion had left a 
debt of $250,000 (with insurance of only 
$150,000), the property owned and still 
usable by the Sanitarium was worth nearly 
as much as its debt. (That property includ- 
ed buildings on the former campus of 
Battle Creek College, which Kellogg had 
purchased in 1901 when the college relo- 
cated to Berrien Springs, Michigan.) 
Further, many prominent Battle Creek citi- 
zens expressed interest in contributing to a 
new building. There were some questions 
about the Sanitarium, however, that had to 
be answered before Kellogg could expect a 
fully favorable reception from local citi- 
zens. In setting up the new Sanitarium 
Association, Kellogg had centralized the 
administration of the auxiliary enterprises 
he controlled, including the food compa- 
nies and the Good Health Publishing 
Company (which produced promotional 
literature for the Sanitarium and informa- 

26 Temple of Health 

tion on healthy Hving). That arrangement 
had led some critics, Adventists and non- 
Adventists alike, to think that Kellogg had 
engineered the restructuring of the 
Sanitarium's ownership so that Sanitarium 
funds could be used for the benefit of 
those other enterprises and for his own 
personal profit. ^^ 

There were also serious longstanding 
issues concerning state and local taxes. 
When the Sanitarium Association was 
established in 1897, it paid taxes but did so 
under protest. Kellogg argued that it was a 
benevolent association that should be tax- 
exempt. After three years of paying taxes, 
the Sanitarium filed three lawsuits against 
the state, claiming that it had been unjustly 
and unfairly taxed. Just before the fire, a 
court in Battle Creek had ruled in favor of 
the Sanitarium in the first of the suits to 
be examined. The city of Battle Creek 
appealed the case to the Supreme Court of 
Michigan, and there matters stood at the 
time of the blaze. 

Local businessmen convened shortly 
after the fire to consider the possible 
departure of the Sanitarium and its impact 
on the city. Questions about the tax status 
of the Sanitarium loomed large, as did 
rumors that Kellogg was pocketing riches 
at the expense of patients and local resi- 
dents. On the other hand, businessmen 
knew that the Sanitarium had accounted 
for substantial local revenue. Kellogg was 
asked to come to a general meeting of citi- 
zens to talk about the Sanitarium and its 
management. As the result of this meet- 
ing—and at least partly at Kellogg's sugges- 
tion—a blue-ribbon committee of five local 
civic, religious, and business leaders was 
appointed to investigate the Sanitarium. 
The committee undertook a detailed inves- 
tigation of Sanitarium operations and 
finances, with the goal of determining 

whether the citizens of Battle Creek should 
take an active role in providing for a new 

The reports, delivered at a large public 
meeting on March 17, 1902, were without 
exception favorable. Each member 
expressed surprise that he had ever har- 
bored a notion that the Sanitarium opera- 
tions were anything but upright and 
charitable or that Kellogg's motives were in 
doubt. The remarks of S. O. Bush, vice- 
president of the Advance Threshing 
Machine Company, characterized the 
thoughts of committee members: 

Many of us . . . feared that [the Sanitarium] 
would not bear investigation. We believed, 
in other words, that the Sanitarium was a 
money-making institution, and that there 
was a pocket somewhere into which the 
profits were being dropped, and we did not 
know where it was, but I will simply say to 
you that after going into this investigation,— 
and we had everything placed at our disposal 
that we asked for, any books and all the 
books, vouchers, private accounts of individ- 
uals as well as the accounts of the 
Sanitarium,— we became thoroughly satisfied 
that the statements which had been made to 
us were absolutely correct; and I, for one, 
feel ashamed of some of the statements that 
I have made concerning the Sanitarium and 
its management before I went into this inves- 
tigation; and so far as I am concerned, I feel 
this way, that whether they go or whether 
they remain in Battle Creek, I want to do 
what I can to place the management right 
before the people of this city."*^ 

Among other things, the committee 
members pointed out that not only did the 
Sanitarium staff work for very low wages 
but that Kellogg himself accepted no salary 
at all, directing that the money set aside 
for his salary be put into a charitable 
account for other purposes. Furthermore, 
at least a third of the Sanitarium patients 

Patsy Gerstner 27 

Fig. 25. 
Laying of the 
cornerstone for 
the new 

were charity patients. No Sanitarium 
income was used for any outside purposes, 
including branch sanitaria. Kelfogg, they 
said, took no advantage of his position for 
his own benefit, and that even if he used 
Sanitarium services or staff in any way, he 
paid for them. In short, they found the 
Sanitarium to be "a purely philanthropic 
and charitable institution." It was the unan- 
imous feeling of the committee that 

[I]f we as a people and as citizens, if we who 
have white hairs on our heads, have a proper 
regard, not for those in our immediate pres- 
ence, but for our children, and our chil- 
dren's children, we cannot free ourselves 
from the fact that unless we are so lacking in 
public spirit and so lacking in that which 
tells men when to keep a good thing and 
when to give it up, we certainly wUl not per- 
mit this great Sanitarium to cease its work 
among our people and go elsewhere.'''' 

With that, the committee began a cam- 
paign to raise $50,000 for the Sanitarium's 
rebuilding. Their enthusiastic endorse- 
ment quelled challenges to the 
Sanitarium's tax-exempt status, clearing 
the way for the institution to operate for 
the next few years without paying taxes. '^^ 

Rebuilding began almost immediately, 
and the cornerstone was laid with great 
fanfare on May 4 (fig. 25), just three 
months after the fire. Through summer, 
fall, and winter the new Sanitarium took 
shape. While construction was underway. 
East Hall, a building on the Battle Creek 
College Campus, was used as a temporary 
sanitarium. On May 31, 1903, sixteen 
months after the fire, the new Battle Creek 
Sanitarium was dedicated amid the cheers 
of thousands who attended the ceremony. 

The imposing Italian Renaissance style 
building, which still stands, is nearly one- 

28 Temple of Health 

fifth of a mile long and six stories high 
(figs. 26, 27). The architect was Frank M. 
Andrews of Dayton, Ohio. Buff-colored 
brick faced the exterior, broken at intervals 
with gray brick pilasters. A central wing, 
which housed the gymnasium, and two 
flanking treatment wings extended from 
the rear. A rotunda, in which Kellogg 
developed another miniature tropical par- 
adise—complete with colorful birds and 
butterflies flying among banana, fig, and 
orange trees— connected the gymnasium to 
the main building.''^ 

A loggia on the ground floor, running 
nearly the length of the building, became a 
favorite place for patients to enjoy the 
benefits of fresh air (fig. 28). Additional 
porches were located at the north and 
south ends of the building. In all, the 
Sanitarium included 32,000 square feet of 
porches and verandas on which patients 
could rest and sleep in the fresh air. 

Kellogg advocated fresh, cold air in partic- 
ular, and he designed an electric 
blanket/robe (fig. 29) for guests who 
desired warmth. "^^ 

The interest that Kellogg attached to fresh 
air was apparent throughout the Sanitarium, 
which was described as "perfectly heated 
and ventilated. "^^ The ventilation system 
was a special source of pride, as it had 
been in the earlier building. Once again, a 

Fig. 26. The 
from the rear, 
showing the 
gymnasium and 
two treatment 

Fig. 27. 
Entrance to the 

Fig. 28. The 

Fig. 30. The Porte-air directed fresh air to the 
patient 's head. 

Fig. 29. The blanket/robe, designed by Kellogg 

system of ducts brought fresh air to every 
room and helped in the maintenance of 
constant temperatures throughout the 
building. Heavy masonry construction also 
assured constant temperatures throughout 
the year— about 70° in the daytime, and 
about 60° at night. It was nevertheless pos- 
sible to regulate the temperature in each 
guest's room in accordance with the condi- 
tion and needs of the person. 

Although a flow of fresh air was assured 
throughout the building, Kellogg included 
at least one outside window in every room. 
Ingenious devices were developed to allow 
access to air for sleeping guests. In some 
cases a tentlike structure was built over the 
outside of the window that allowed the 
patient to lay with his or her head outside 
the window. Another device was the air 
tube or "Porte-air," which brought air 
inside the room directly to the patient's 
head (fig. 30). 

The issue of fire was, of course, upper- 
most in Kellogg's mind when the new facil- 
ity was designed. A careful investigation of 
construction alternatives resulted in a deci- 

sion to build floors with reinforced con- 
crete. Marble mosaic (nearly five acres of 
it) was chosen to cover the concrete since 
it, too, offered fireproofing and was also 
much easier to keep up than wood and less 
likely to harbor germs. The only wood in 
the building was used for trim (window 
and door casings and the like). It was gen- 
erally red birch, finished to look like light 
mahogany; the Grand Parlor was trimmed 
in golden oak. Staircases were constructed 
of iron, marble, and slate; pillars and 
beams were made of iron and cement. 
When completed, the building was hailed 
as "the only absolutely fire-proof institu- 
tion of the sort in the world. '"^^ 

Guests entered the Sanitarium through a 
shaded, covered porch that led directly 
into the Grand Lobby (fig. 31). A marble 
staircase and six steam-powered elevators 
were available to the upper floors. The 
tropical garden was directly opposite the 
main entrance, and guests could enjoy the 
view from any point in the lobby. 

A hallway to the left (north) of the lobby 
led to the Grand Parlor (fig. 32). Smaller 

Fig. 31. The 
Grand Lobby, 
with "Ladies' 
Comer" at center 
The designation 
of a special area 
for women was 
dropped around 

Patsy Gerstner 31 

Fig. 32. The 
Grand Parlor, 
a gathering 
place for guests 


Fig. 33. A guest room being prepared for a new 

parlors, one for men and one for women, 
adjoined it. Along the corridor were the 
Sanitarium business offices and the men's 
medical offices. Along the hallway to the 
right (south) of the lobby were the 

32 Temple of Health 

women's medical offices and specialty 
offices. Guest rooms were located on floors 
two through five. Rooms were lighted with 
electricity, and at least half of them had 
private bathrooms with "solid porcelain 
tubs, lavatories, and the most improved toi- 
let arrangements."^" Hot and cold running 
water were always available. Rooms without 
private baths were equipped with wash- 
stands. Each room had a veneered dresser 
with a large mirror, writing table, and clos- 
et. Brass rather than wood beds were used 
because they were considered more sani- 
tary; and there were no large cotton or 
wool carpets because it was thought that 
dust and bits of lint from them might irri- 
tate the lungs or harbor germs (fig. 33). 
Instead, Sanitarium rooms were furnished 
with rugs that could be easily removed for 
thorough cleaning. 

Kellogg was especially proud of the tele- 
phone exchange (fig. 34). Through it, 
"patients may be connected with any room, 

night or day, with the management, or 
with their physicians. By the long-distance 
telephone, a businessman at the Sanitarium 
can easily connect with Boston, New York, 
Chicago, St. Louis, Omaha, St. Paul, New 
Orleans, San Antonio, Washington, and all 
principal intervening points."^' 

A dining room that could seat as many 
as eight hundred persons was on the sixth 
floor. Several small paintings adorned the 
lower edge of the vaulted ceiling, and the 
room was flooded with light from many 
windows. A promenade on the roof was a 
before-dinner tradition, and guests marched 
to their official song, "The Battle Creek 
Sanitarium March" (fig. 35) described as a 
"lively two-step. "^^ The kitchen (fig. 36) was 
located on the north side of the dining 

The amount of food consumed at the 
Sanitarium during a year gives a good indi- 

cation of how busy the kitchen and dining 
room were. In 1910, guests consumed 
19,174 gallons of milk, 27,928 gallons of 
cream, 41,319 dozen eggs, 40,282 loaves of 
bread, 51,206 pounds of butter, 1,600 bar- 
rels of apples, 6,000 bushels of potatoes, 
1,249 cases of oranges, 1,429 bunches of 
bananas, and 434 cases of grapefruit. By 
1921, the consumption had increased 
significantly. For example, 63,816 dozen 
eggs and 130,814 loaves of bread were 

A new hospital was not built, but a surgi- 
cal area was constructed on the sixth floor, 
completely separated by solid walls from 
the dining room and the kitchen. The 
aseptic maternity was moved into a house 
that was once the home of James and Ellen 

The new Sanitarium was largely a self- 
contained institution (fig. 37). Much of the 

Fig. 34. The 

Patsy Gerstner 33 

Fig. 35. The roof promenade 

Fig. 36. The Sanitarium kitchen 

food was either grown in on-site green- 
houses or purchased under contract from 
farms approved by Kellogg. Milk was 
processed at the Sanitarium's own dairy 
plant. Laundry facilities were modern (figs. 
38, 39), and each day the sixty-five employ- 
ees handled at least 26,000 pieces, includ- 
ing 2,300 towels, more than 2,000 sheets, 
165 tablecloths, and 1,400 napkins. ^"^ 

Each January, fifteen hundred tons of ice 
were harvested from Lake Goguac and 
were hauled in great wagon caravans to the 
Sanitarium (fig. 40). The Sanitarium was 
thus supplied with ice for a year— until 
1912, when ice-making equipment was pur- 

The new Sanitarium continued to pro- 
vide care for those unable to meet the nor- 
mal costs of treatment. After 1903, East 
Hall, the building that served as the 
Sanitarium immediately after the fire, 
became a charity hospital for those who 

34 Temple of Health 

could not afford the normal hospital 
charges. Sanitarium doctors staffed a clinic 
and dispensary, providing typical treat- 
ments to 120 families by 1910. Sanitarium 
doctors and nurses also visited the sick, 
providing home treatments, special foods, 
and clothing where necessary. Baskets of 
food left over from the daily fare of the 
Sanitarium were assembled and distrib- 
uted to the needy by the clinic every after- 

Although the new Sanitarium flour- 
ished, the years following its opening were 
not administratively smooth. The rift 
between Kellogg and Adventists who 
agreed with Ellen White escalated when 
statements made by Kellogg suggested that 
his religious views were leaning away from 
Adventist teaching. A controversy also 
developed over debts incurred by the 
Medical Missionary and Benevolent 
Association. As a consequence, Kellogg 
forced the Association into bankruptcy, 
bringing it to an end. Those events led to 
Kellogg's dismissal from the church in 

Kellogg's detractors tried to wrestle con- 
trol of the Sanitarium from him, and a 
power struggle ensued. According to the 
Sanitarium trustees, several members of 
the opposition repeatedly attempted to 
"convert [the Sanitarium] into an instru- 
ment for the furtherance of the ends and 
purposes of a certain sectarian organiza- 
tion," and went on to express their belief: 

This opposition and its purpose were clearly 
shown in the determined attempt made by 
the opposing members of the Association to 
injure the standing of the trustees, to under- 
mine the financial credit of the institution, 
to embarrass and hinder the Board of 
Trustees in their efforts to repair the dam- 
age done by the disastrous fire of 1902, all 
with the evident object of compelling sub- 

Fig. 37. Diagrams of the grounds and buildings of the Battle Creek 

mission to sectarian control and influence, 
in direct opposition to one of the most clear- 
ly defined "principles of the work" of the 

To end the opposition, the trustees put 
plans in motion in 1911 to purge the mem- 
bership of those who were antagonistic to 
Kellogg. Over the next two years, the 
board succeeded in ridding the Sanitarium 
Association of members who were either 
inactive or who had demonstrated that 
they were "not only out of harmony and 
sympathy with the principles of the 
Association but antagonistic thereto. "^^ 
Grounds for dismissal on both counts had 
been fortuitously made part of the articles 
of incorporation. 

During the same period, tax problems 
with the State of Michigan escalated. The 
state had backed away from its efforts to 
rescind tax exemption after the fire, but in 
1905 the issue was raised again and the 
tax-exempt status was rescinded. That was 
the beginning of a five-year struggle 
between state authorities and John Harvey 
Kellogg. Kellogg refused to pay the taxes. 

Patsy Gerstner 35 

Figs. 38 and 39. Scenes from the Sanitarium laundry, ca. 1910 

Fig. 40. The 
annual ice 
caravan makes 
its way to the 

and in January of 1910, the Michigan 
Attorney General filed a motion in the cir- 
cuit court at Jackson to have the 
Sanitarium management ousted and the 
institution placed in receivership on the 
grounds that the Sanitarium was violating 
its status as a charitable institution. Before 

that could happen, however, the 
Sanitarium agreed to pay one quarter of 
the $100,000 the state said was owed in 
back taxes with the understanding that, in 
the future, taxes would be paid on related 
Sanitarium properties and businesses, but 
not on the Sanitarium itself.^^ 

Patsy Gerstner 37 




Fig. 41. Breathing exercises 

Part 3 

The Treatment 

When Kellogg took over the Institute 
in 1876, the basic treatment plan 
was in place: a low-meat or nonmeat diet 
rich in fruits, vegetables, and grains; absti- 
nence from alcohol and tobacco; as much 
fresh air and sunshine as possible; loose- 
fitting clothing; the use of electricity to 
stimulate the body and muscles; exercise; 
and water therapy. Kellogg did not vary 
from that regimen in the ensuing years, 
although he added massage as a form of 
exercise and broadened the advantages of 
sunshine by introducing therapeutic heat 
in other forms. He also worked toward 
making the Battle Creek treatments "scien- 
tific," by which he meant treatment based 
on careful experimental and physiological 
study and treatment that could, ideally, be 

Although the treatment remained basi- 
cally the same, Kellogg made a significant 
addition to his understanding of the caus- 
es of illness in the 1890s. Prior to 1890, he 
attributed illness to such things as impure 
air, improper food, general debility, poor 
blood, muscle weakness, and the use of 
alcohol, tobacco, and other stimulants. 
Kellogg thought that illness stemmed from 
poison in the blood that could be caused 
by impure air and water. Diet, exercise (fig. 
41), and other healthy measures assisted 
the body in removing the poisons and also 
improved the general constitution of the 
individual so that he or she could better 
resist illness. When the medical communi- 
ty established the fact that many diseases 
were caused by microorganisms, or germs, 
Kellogg added germs to his list of causes, 
at least insofar as they contributed to 
impure water, air, and general living condi- 

Between 1890 and 1898 Kellogg adopt- 
ed an additional explanation for illness, 

Patsy Gerstner 39 

Fig. 43. 

Fig. 42. 

Figs. 42, 43, 44, 45. All Sanitarium patients 
received a thorough physical examination. 

Fig. 44. 

one that became more important to him 
than all the others— the theory of 
"Autointoxication." Kellogg believed that 
the theory provided a scientific explana- 
tion for most chronic illness, for the tenets 
of health reform, and for the success of the 
Batde Creek Idea.^^ 


According to the theory of autointoxica- 
tion, the human body constantly produced 
toxins (poisons) that were normally elimi- 
nated through the action of the liver and 
kidneys. When the intestines (particularly 
the lower part of the large intestine called 
the colon) became sluggish or stopped 
working altogether (a condition referred to 
as stasis), the result was constipation. 
Because the food residue laid in the colon 
for much too long, an extraordinary level 
of toxicity was built up in the body, causing 
everything from headache and drowsiness 
to cancer, diabetes, gallstones, neurasthe- 
nia, arthritis, and tuberculosis.^' 

Many things were believed to contribute 
to or cause stasis. Internal organs that fell 
downward (putting pressure on the 
intestines), poor diet, and a weakened 
colon were among them. Treatments 
included change in diet, the use of enemas 
and laxatives to remove material from the 
colon, and supporters to hold organs in 
place. Several surgeons advocated the 
removal of the entire colon! 

Kellogg recommended supporters, reen- 
forced the necessity of doing away with 
tight clothes since they could contribute to 
the displacement of organs, recommended 
enemas and laxatives in many cases, advo- 
cated exercise to strengthen abdominal 
muscles, and championed a less radical 
form of surgery in extreme cases. He was 

convinced, however, that diet was the prin- 
ciple culprit, particularly animal products. 

Because it was difficult to digest, meat 
tended to cause stasis. Further, because 
animals were raised in dirty surroundings, 
meat and other animal products such as 
milk were filled with putrefactive bacteria. 
The combination of the bacteria and the 
stasis led to an overwhelming release of 
toxins and to autointoxication. A carefully 
structured diet, free of meat and milk, 
would, he believed, have two effects: it 
would lower or eliminate the presence of 
putrefactive bacteria and it would cause 
the food to move quickly through the sys- 
tem, lowering the possibility for a build-up 
of toxins.^- 

The idea of autointoxication closely sup- 
ported reformers' theories that poor food 
led to illness. A regular diet structure to 
combat autointoxication became the most 
important aspect of treatment at the 
Sanitarium. Yet the replacement of a poor 
diet with a good one was not always suc- 
cessful by itself. Years of mistreating the 
digestive system, Kellogg argued, so dam- 
aged its natural abilities to eliminate mate- 
rial from the body that additional 
measures were required to restore its effec- 
tiveness. Exercise was important in 
strengthening the abdominal muscles to 
prevent organs from falling, and the whole 
Sanitarium regimen of exercise, fresh air, 
water, and other therapies became an essen- 
tial means of preventing stasis. 

When a patient came to the Sanitarium 
in 1888 (before autointoxication), the stay 
began with a thorough physical examina- 
tion, usually done the day after arrival. On 
the basis of that examination, the physi- 
cian prepared a regimen of diet, exercise, 
and other treatments, all of which were 

Patsy Gerstner 41 

Fig. 46. An 
important aspect 
of diagnosing 
was laboratory 
analysis of body 

closely supervised by the physician and 
monitored and implemented by some of 
the several hundred persons employed as 
nurses or attendants at the Sanitarium, 
whose job it was to watch over the patient's 

As Kellogg's ideas on autointoxication 
took hold, the first examination of the 
patient (figs. 42, 43, 44, 45) became more 
complex. ^^ The most critical part of the 
evaluation was a three-day study of diges- 
tion, beginning on the second day of the 
stay. Its purpose was to determine how 
serious the autointoxication was. Body 
wastes were carefully collected and ana- 
lyzed (fig. 46) in order to judge damage to 
the body and to determine the numbers of 
offending bacteria in the colon. 
Simultaneously, studies to measure the 
speed with which food passed through the 
system were done, for the more quickly the 

food made its journey through the system, 
the less chance there was for serious 
autointoxication. The majority of patients 
were found to suffer from some degree of 
the ailment, and each was given a prescrip- 
tion for an appropriate diet (fig. 47) as well 
as a schedule of other treatments directed 
toward eliminating autointoxication and 
reversing its effect on the body. 

Diet and Digestion 

Kellogg developed many foods, including 
his nut-based products, as substitutes for 
meat and milk. Other foods, food prod- 
ucts, and eating habits were developed or 
adopted to combat putrefaction in the 
intestines and to encourage the digestive 
system to resume normal functioning. 

Yogurt and soy acidophilus milk were 
staples of the menu, intended to suppress 
the putrefactive bacteria in the colon and 

42 Temple of Health 

replace them with "good" bacteria. Kellogg 
based his beliefs on the writings of Elie 
Metchnikoff, European scientist and devo- 
tee of the theory of autointoxication, who 
observed that Bulgarians lived a long and 
healthy life and consumed quantities of 
yogurt. Metchnikoff suggested that a lactic- 
acid-forming organism in the yogurt was 
responsible for Bulgarians' longevity 
because it reduced the number of putrefac- 
tive bacteria in the intestines. Metchnikoff 
called the organism the "Bulgarian bacil- 
lus." The soy-based milk contained a lactic- 
acid-generating bacillus similar to the one 
in yogurt, and it became a standard item 
on the Sanitarium menu after 1915. 

Lacto-dextrin was another product 
intended to reduce the number of offend- 
ing bacteria. It was mixture of lactose and 
dextrin flavored with lemon in powdered 

Special Dietaries 



I No. I with the Addlttoi 



form to be mixed with water as a refresh- 
ing drink. Guests could purchase most of 
the special products in a small shop (fig. 
48) just outside the Palm Garden. 

Fig. 47. 

Kellogg's dietary 
plans stressed 
fruits, grains, 
vegetables, and 

Fig. 48. The 
food booth, 
located just out- 
side the Palm 

Patsy Gerstner 43 

Fig. 49. In 
1921, Kellogg 
the cleanliness 
of his dairy 
bams by hold- 
ing this dinner 
for local 

Kellogg removed milk from the 
Sanitarium menu when he adopted autoin- 
toxication, but he reintroduced it several 
years later because he became convinced 
that milk could be safe if dairy cattle were 
raised in absolutely clean quarters. (A dra- 
matic demonstration of how clean a dairy 
barn can be is seen in fig. 49.) Kellogg took 
care to see that the milk processed at the 
Sanitarium maintained a germ count that 
was within an acceptable range. ^'* 

Kellogg insisted that food had to move 
rapidly and regularly through the system, 
with at least three bowel movements per 
day.^^ Thus, little residue would remain in 
the colon to lead to autointoxication. 
Regularity could be achieved by the right 
diet, appropriate exercises, and the use of 
such high-fiber foods as bran (fig. 50). If 
the colon was weakened by years of mis- 
treatment and constipation, however, 
Kellogg prescribed additional measures to 
encourage elimination, including such 
lubricants as mineral or paraffin oil (fig. 
51). In cases of prolonged constipation, he 

advocated the initial use of the enema to 
rid the bowel of its contents. Enemas or 
laxatives were recommended in order to 
make sure that there was no recurrence 
while a permanent cure was being forged 
through healthy living . 

In looking for ways to aid the easy and 
rapid digestion of food, Kellogg embraced 
Fletcherism in 1902. Horace Fletcher 
gained prominence in the United States in 
the early twentieth century by advocating 
thorough mastication of food. Fletcher 
advocated chewing each morsel of food 
several hundred times, reducing it to a 
fully digestible liquid before swallowing. 
After meeting Fletcher, Kellogg began to 
encourage Sanitarium patients to 
"Fletcherize," thinking that such prolonged 
chewing would help assure that no bit of 
undigested food reached the colon, where 
it might rot. Kellogg constantly reminded 
guests to chew by posting signs in the din- 
ing area (fig. 52). He even introduced a 
"chewing song," the chorus of which was, 
"Chew, chew, chew" for it is "the right 

44 Temple of Health 


Kellogg's Bran 





v.tlliHT UB.J OZ, 

KeDogg's Bran 

Fig. 50. Kellogg's Bran was marketed as a cure for Fig. 51. Some of the bulk-producing products and 

constipation. It was "ready to serve" from the box or laxatives that were developed at the Sanitarium and 

could be used in mush, cookies, brownies, or bread. sold by the Battle Creek Food Company 

Fig 52. The 
reminder was 
displayed in the 
dining room. 



Monday, Februiry 22, 1915 

Fig. 53. A 

typical day 's 

7 Wi 

m Oif,l Cvmniitirt in Cvran.iium. 

schedule, as 

«. Momm, \lonh:p ;n Ikt P.,lor. 

printed on the 

; »i 

8:«.m. BRE,\KF\5T 

9,15 a m. V Qtrcn'i Sprciil C'*ii in C^nuium. 

back of the 


9,45 ..m. C>^n..,.m Dr,rl .od M.rth lo. r.cU .od p..,>n... 

day's menu. 

9,45 1. 

10,30., m. Co,mi,.t .-d Mcdic.i fo. ma. iollo»od br ,.m„ 
undo, d;r«l,on of Pro!. Fronk E. MiUtr. 

Everyone was 

12:30 » 

2,00 p.m. DINNEFl. 

expected to 


m. Cockm, a... .0 Domrido Scmcc Rtxou o.u CH.p^l. Cu..l. 
4,00 p.m. .\W.<.I,l,c. (or m,= .od -om.n lo A. C.oi...i»m 

participate in 


m. H.-Irk ..d ES.i.oir L«..r, m A. P.rlo, b. Pro(,.K„ M.licr 

the listed 

6, CO to 

6,45 p.m. SL'PPER. 

7.3OP m. lodioo Clob Dull .Od M.Tk fo, ,.„i. .od ?..„o.. 

activities, and 


m- Miilc by Orchntro. 

each guest also 


m. lo Iho P.rlor. CH,«>.oo Bo. b. D, j. H Kcllon 

received a 


Speni.l Notice. 

schedule of 

M.,l d. 

.■.orio-8,CO .od n 00 . m.. 3,00 .od 5,00 p. m. Sood.v 9 00 . m 00', 

M.,1 to 

l«i,oo.-9 00 .. m.. 12 K. 2,20, 4. 20 600 p. m. Sood.. 4,00 p m o„:. 



m .1 M.,o D0.I. air.n. Dotroll, No. York. PhJ.d.lphl., Cmcor,,. 


!.nd. D.!!.. Nr... o,< A.k lh. 


0«ce opoo from 9,00 . m, to 7 CO p, ., ...opi.d. 

THo^ . 

nih.os to joio Ibe wolkioa portiot .nd .,,,1 of iotefc.' in B.ltle Creek 


rridn lo lb. lobb. .1 7 00 ., m-- 9 30 . rn. 3 , 30 p m or 7,00 p m 

F,,^ G 

nl.tio, Libr.rr .od R..dini Room Snoerd Root P.'lor M.m Boddin,, op.o 


. m. lo 9,C0 p m. d..l.. Sotood Hoo. Colloo. Boildro,, .p,o 8 CO . m ,o 


p m. d.,V r,ict;l S.rurdsy; S.rurd.y 2 OT ,o 9 <» p to. 


D.rnicrioo io M.dic.1 Crmo.ttrci br .ppo.otm^ol w,lh Ph..,r.l Director 
No fn.'J h he Jfllen /rem At Dinir,! R.,om 

thing to do." It also warned that "You may 
smile when you chew, but don't try to talk 
too, for perhaps you will choke, and be 
sorry that you spoke. "^^ The problem with 
Fletcherism was that few people had the 
endurance (or the strength of jaw) to 
spend the required hours to eat each meal. 
In time, Kellogg was content to recom- 
mend that food simply be chewed about 
four times longer than normal. 

Before 1890, the scientific determina- 
tion of food values was in its infancy; but 
as information became available about 
such things as calories, proteins, fats, and 
carbohydrates, Kellogg incorporated each 
concept into the process of selecting foods 
for each diet. 

In addition, foods and menus were con- 
stantly evaluated in the Sanitarium 
kitchens and laboratories. Kellogg also 
established the Pavlov Institute in the early 
twentieth century for the scientific study of 
food. Institute studies focused on the way 
that different foods affected the produc- 

tion of digestive juice. The studies may 
have contributed to the introduction of 
one of the most popular Sanitarium food 
products, Savita, a yeast extract that gave 
the flavor of meat to food. Kellogg argued 
that the product stimulated the production 
of digestive juice, thus aiding the complete 
digestion of food. 

Exercise and Muscle Stimulation 

Health reformers considered exercise a 
powerful agent in the fight to be healthy. 
Lack of exercise led to poor general health 
and to several specific ailments that were 
the result of muscular weakness. Kellogg, 
for example, attributed such diverse condi- 
tions as round shoulders, poor circulation, 
curvature of the spine, and autointoxica- 
tion to poor muscle tone and strength. 
Flaccid muscles and poor posture were as 
likely to be the cause of falling organs as 
tight clothing, while strong muscles would 
not only keep the organs in place but 
encourage the intestines to work properly 
as well. Because of its importance, exercise 
filled many hours of the patient's day (fig. 

The importance of exercise was epito- 
mized in the gymnasium of the 1903 build- 
ing. At 66' X 120', the gymnasium was 
almost twice as large as its forerunner. 
Unlike the earlier facility, it was never used 
for any other purpose. Located between 
the two treatment \\dngs, it offered rowing 
machines, weight-pulling apparatus, lifting 
machines, swings, and other devices 
intended to improve physical condition 
and muscle strength. A running track (fig. 
54) circled the upper part of the facility. 

In order to determine the extent of mus- 
cle weakness and quantify muscular devel- 
opment, Kellogg invented a Universal 
Dynometer (fig. 55) in 1883, after nearly 
ten years of study. With it, the strength of 

46 Temple of Health 

Fig. 54. The 
Gymnasium in 
the 1903 
featured an 
running track. 

all the major muscle groups could be mea- 
sured and appropriate exercises pre- 
scribed. Improvement in the strength of 
the individual muscles and in total 
strength was carefully plotted on charts so 
that the patient and physician could deter- 
mine progress. 

One of the most highly valued parts of 
the exercise program was the "movement- 
cure." Movement-cure was based on con- 
cepts introduced in the early nineteenth 
century by Peter Henrik Ling of Sweden 
(hence, the exercises were sometimes 
called Swedish Movements). The move- 
ment-cure found a ready audience among 
some of the early proponents of health 
reform in the United States. Trail, for 
example, was teaching it at his Hygeio- 
Therapeutic College when Kellogg was a 
student, and it was in use at the Institute 
before Kellogg joined the staff. 

The goal of movement-cure was to pro- 
vide relief from physical problems through 
carefully planned and monitored muscle 
exercise that occurred as resistance was 
exerted in opposition to the patient's efforts 
to move. The exercises developed by Ling 
relied on the presence of an attendant who 

acted as a counterforce or resistance to the 
patient's efforts (fig. 56). Ling emphasized 
preciseness in his program, taking care to 
see that exercises were done in accordance 
with carefully developed procedures and 
rules. Thus, Kellogg viewed them as scien- 

Stimulation of the muscles and organs 
through massage and vibration were also 
advocated by Ling as a form of exercise. 

Fig 55. 
Kellogg 's 
measured the 
strength of all 
the major muscle 

Patsy Gerstner 47 

Fig. 57. The 
Ball Muscle 
invented by 
Kellogg for 

Fig. 56. One of the exercises developed by Peter Henrik Ling 

Fig. 58. The 
Room, about 

Vibratory movement could be imparted by 
an attendant's hand or by a hand-held 
vibrator. Percussion, a form of massage 
used to stimulate circulation, was per- 
formed by tapping or clapping patients 
with the hands or with an instrument 
devised for the purpose (fig. 57). Kellogg 
considered abdominal massage particularly 
important as a means of stimulating the 
bowel to action in cases of autointoxication. 

Movement-cure, massage, vibration, and 
other forms of exercise were very labor 
intensive for the attendants, who did most 
of the work from which the patient 
benefitted, and it was tiring for the atten- 
dant. While on a tour of Europe in 1883, 
Kellogg found a suitable alternative for 
administering many treatments. In Sweden 
he was impressed with the steam-driven 
machines that administered Ling's treat- 
ments. The machines, developed by Gustav 
Zander, did the work of attendants, both in 
providing resistance and in administering 
massage or vibration.^' 

Kellogg may have seen similar Swedish 
machines at the 1875 Centennial 
Exposition in Philadelphia, because a few 
of them from Sweden were exhibited 
there. If he saw them, however, it apparent- 
ly did not occur to him to use them until 
the 1883 visit to Sweden. When he 
returned to Battle Creek, Kellogg had a 
number of machines based on Zander's 
equipment made, and a mechanical move- 
ment room (fig. 58) was set up beneath the 
gymnasium.^^ A similar room with updated 
equipment was an integral part of the 1903 

Equipment in the mechanical movement 
room included a vibrating belt and chair. 
The vibrating belt was intended to aid 
flabby muscles, nervousness, constipation, 
circulation, obesity, rheumatism, and many 

other disorders (fig. 59). The vibrating 
chair— on which the patient could sit, stand 
at the back holding onto the cross bars, or 
sit in an adjacent chair and receive stimula- 
tion through the footrests (figs. 60, 61)— 
was exhibited at the Columbian 
Exposition. It was one of the most popular 
attractions because it offered relief for 
tired, aching feet. 

Whirling straps massaged and vibrated 
the body. The user could control the 
impact by reducing or increasing the speed 
of the straps and by moving closer to or 
away from the pillar (fig. 62). A mechanical 
horse (fig. 63) offered all the benefits of 
horseback riding.^^ Kellogg thought that 
the motion of the horse was especially 
good in stimulating intestinal activity, and 
for patients who could not ride real horses, 
it was the perfect solution. Machines for 
massaging and vibrating the colon were 
essential to Kellogg's principles (fig. 64). In 
spite of the mechanization of many treat- 
ments, however, medical gymnastics using 
an attendant never disappeared entirely 
from the Sanitarium.'" 

Although building expansion meant that 
much of the exercise program could be 
carried on indoors year-round, Kellogg 
encouraged patients to exercise outdoors 
as much as possible. Walking, horseback 
riding, swimming, Indian clubs, and skiing 
were encouraged (figs. 65, 66). Breathing 
exercises were done daily to invigorate and 
strengthen the system. 

Kellogg developed an interest in posture 
and its relationship to health. He believed 
that poor posture was the result of weak 
muscles and that it was an intermediate 
cause of displaced organs. To help diag- 
nose poor posture, Kellogg introduced the 
Shadowgraph in the late nineteenth centu- 
ry, a device that projected a shadow of the 

Patsy Gerstner 49 

Fig. 59. The vibrating belt, ca. 1910 

Fig. 60. A group of vibrating chairs 

Fig. 61. This 
chair provided 
vibration to the 

Fig. 63. The Battle Creek Mechanical Horse 

Fig. 62. One of many varieties of massage or vibration offered at the 

Fig. 64. An 




Fig. 66. Members of an exercise class pose with Indian clubs on the front terrace. 

Fig. 67. 
posture and 
mental and 
dexterity were 
the goals of 

body on a muslin cloth.'' The shadow 
revealed any deviation from what he con- 
sidered good posture, and exercises were 
prescribed to correct the deviation. In 
addition to exercises for posture, Kellogg 
devised a special posture chair featuring a 
convex back that not only offered support 
but forced the person to sit up straight. 
The posture chair was used throughout the 
Sanitarium, including patient rooms and 
the dining room. 

Shortly after 1903, Kellogg introduced 
sloyd to the Sanitarium. Sloyd was devel- 
oped in the Scandinavian countries as a 
means of improving mental and physical 
dexterity while learning a manual trade, 
often woodworking. Kellogg believed that 
the work, performed while standing and 
using tools (fig. 67), was a useful means of 
improving posture and strengthening the 

All patients were expected to follow the 
Battle Creek plan for health. If patients 
were bedridden and unable to come to the 

gymnasium or mechanical movement 
room, attendants assisted with prescribed 
exercises in the patient's room (fig. 68). 

Kellogg was eager to make the value of 
exercise known and to teach proper meth- 
ods of exercise outside the Sanitarium. He 

Fig. 68. Even 
the bedridden 
could engage in 

Patsy Gerstner 53 

Fig. 69. An 
device is 
displayed in 
this 1888 
photograph of 

established companies such as the 
Sanitarium Equipment Company to sell 
Sanitarium exercise equipment. In 1923, 
he entered into an agreement with the 
Columbia Graphaphone Company (fore- 
runner of Columbia Records) to produce 
what may have been the earliest of the 
forerunners of the modern audio and 
video exercise tapes. The phonograph 
recordings were accompanied by the Battle 
Creek Sanitarium Health Ladder, a book 
that carefully described each exercise.'^ 


By the mid-nineteenth century, electrother- 
apy was enjoying great popularity in 
American hospitals and homes for a vari- 
ety of purposes ranging from muscle stim- 

ulation to the treatment of neurasthenia 
and uterine diseases. '■'' Electrotherapy was 
popular with water-curists and had been 
offered at the Western Health Reform 
Institute. Because electricity was painless 
but produced vigorous muscle contraction, 
Kellogg thought that it was an excellent 
choice for the patient who could not active- 
ly exercise. It was also used to stimulate the 
colon (fig. 69). 

The Sanitarium had several large static 
electric generators (fig. 70). Direct current 
and oscillating current were used in other 
devices (figs. 71, 72). In addition to apply- 
ing electricity externally by direct contact 
with the skin through electrodes (as with 
the static generator) or by placing the 
patient within or near an electrical field, it 

54 Temple of Health 

Fig. 70. 

Kellogg claimed 
that this static 
electric genera- 
tor was the 
largest ever 

Fig. 71. The rapidly oscillating electric field within this 
coil generated a high-frequency electrical treatment. 

Fig. 72. Electrotherapy through water 

Fig. 13. A 
century view of 
the Laboratory 
of Experimental 



Fig. 74. The apparatus on the wall delivered water 
for a lumbar douche at various temperatures and 
intensities, varying from a pinpoint stream to a 
wide spray. 

x\:*i. u^i 

Fig. 75. A partial submersion bath 

was sometimes applied through water, or 
appHed internally by inserting electrodes 
into body openings. The method used 
depended on the problem to be treated. 
Current applied through water was often 
used as a general tonic or to aid in sleep, 
whereas electrodes introduced into the 
body were intended to stimulate the stom- 
ach and colon to natural activity. 

Baths, Light, and Heat 

For early water-curists, water had been, 
without doubt, the most essential treat- 
ment. By 1876, however, water cure, or 
hydropathy, had declined in popularity. 
Instead of the elaborate baths, sprays, and 
wet wraps that once characterized water 
cure, people were turning to waters that 
were laden with minerals supposed to pro- 
vide special curative powers. Places like 
Saratoga Springs in New York, Warm 
Springs in Virginia, and French Lick 
Springs in Indiana had already become 
famous for their mineral waters, and for 
the next few decades would draw thou- 
sands of people annually seeking health by 
"taking the waters." Kellogg thought the 
use of mineral waters was irrational and 
unscientific, and he made a point of dis- 
avowing their significance, calling them 
"humbugs" that were "reaping a rich har- 
vest of plunder from the deluded multi- 
tudes of chronic invalids who flock to 
them for relief."^^ He wanted his patients 
to continue to reap the benefit of pure 
water, but he also made it clear that water 
was not to be regarded as the most impor- 
tant treatment, as his predecessors had 
tended to do. He preferred to think of it as 
one of several valuable treatments offered 
at the Sanitarium.'^ As with the others, he 
was determined that the use of water 
would be scientific; while others referred 
to water cure as hydropathy, he called it 

hydrotherapy in order to signify its scien- 
tific stature at the Sanitarium. 

Kellogg had begun to study the effect of 
water on the body as early as 1875, and in 
the early 1890s he established the Labora- 
tory of Experimental Hydrotherapy at the 
Sanitarium (fig. 73). His studies and those 
of others in the laboratory sought to deter- 
mine how to treat every condition in terms 
of the way the water was delivered and for 
how long, and what the water temperature 
should be in each instance. 

Each of the two treatment wings at the 
rear of the 1903 building contained 
bathing areas. The application of water to 

Fig. 76. The 
surge, or 
rocking bath 
was used as a 
tonic following 
other forms 
of water 

Fig 77. Wet 
wrap with 

Patsy Gerstner 57 

Fig. 78. 



Fig. 79. The 
sand bath 

the body came in many different forms of 
which the following are some examples: 
single or multiple columns of water (called 
a douche or spray) directed against some 
part of the body (fig. 74), the cold plunge 
bath, the full or partial bath in which the 

entire body or some part of it was 
immersed in water (fig. 75), the surge or 
rocking bath (fig. 76), the swimming bath, 
wet wraps (fig. 77), wet hand rubbing, and 
the sponge bath. Each general category 
had many variations, each with a specific 

58 Temple of Health 

purpose and meaning for the health of the 
patient. There were more than forty kinds 
of douches and as many full or partial 
immersion baths. The lumbar douche (fig. 
74) was thought to be helpful in the treat- 
ment of constipation, incontinence, and 
problems affecting the pelvic, visceral 
functions. One variation of the full bath 
was the continuous bath (fig. 78), which 
could last (with intermissions) for up to a 
year, although a shorter duration of a few 
hours or weeks was more typical.'^ Longer 
durations were used for severe fevers and 
for severe burns, among other things. 
Vigorous rubbing was an important part of 
many baths, and in 1908 Kellogg devel- 
oped a rough mitten for attendants to use 
for rubbing. The patient's medical evalua- 
tion determined which of the baths, or 
what combination of baths, would be most 

Swimming was often combined with 

exercise, and each wing of the 1903 build- 
ing had a large swimming pool at one end 
of the main floor. The water was kept at a 
constant 78°, but a smaller pool adjoining 
the large one was kept at a temperature of 
60°.'^ It served for the plunge baths, which 
were of very short duration. 

The importance of warmth in many 
treatments led Kellogg to include other 
kinds of baths (as he called them) as part 

Fig. 80. The 
air bath was 
usually used to 
cool the body 
after a heat 

Fig. 81. Two 
versions of the 
light bath. The 
one shoum in 
the inset was 
sold for home 

Patsy Gerstner 59 

Fig. 82. Half 

Fig. 83. In 
diathermy, a 
alternating cur- 
rent delivered 
warmth to a 
specific part of 
the body. 

of the treatment. Among them were sand 
baths (fig. 79), dry air baths (fig. 80), oil 
baths, mud baths, sun baths, and— most 
popular of all— light baths. 

Kellogg's attendon was drawn to the use 
of electric lights as substitutes for the sun's 
heat around 1890. He subsequently devel- 
oped many light baths, including the com- 
mon incandescent light bath and the 
combination light-and-water bath. He intro- 
duced a light bath for the whole body (fig. 
81) at the Columbian Exposition in 1893.^^ 
Light baths directed at a limited area of the 
body were called "bakers" (fig. 82). 

Light baths were recommended for gen- 
eral stimulation, rheumatism, high blood 
pressure, and autointoxication, among 
other things. Although early light baths 
depended on incandescent bulbs, by the 
end of the century Kellogg was also using- 
carbon arc lights in the bath. That light 
produced a concentration of invisible 
ultraviolet radiation— which, as we know 
today, is the part of sunlight that causes 
sunburn and can cause severe damage to 
skin tissue. Kellogg, and many of his con- 
temporaries, however, believed that the 
burning and tanning that resulted from 
exposure to ultraviolet light was beneficial. 
He especially believed that the burning 
stimulated the circulation of the blood, 
which hastened the elimination of toxins 
from the body.^^ 

Kellogg added diathermy to his heat 
treatments early in the twentieth century 
(fig. 83). Diathermy uses a very-high-fre- 
quency alternating current (in the range of 
radio frequencies) to raise the temperature 
of the tissues, bringing a penetrating 
warmth to the area of the body under 

Other Treatments 

Kellogg employed a variety of other treat- 
ments in specific cases. Surgery, which has 
already been discussed, was one such 
method of treatment. The few records that 
still exist suggest a wide range of surgical 
procedures, and Kellogg's procedure to 
relive statis was performed with some fre- 
quency. Gynecological surgery was also 

X rays, which were introduced to the 
medical community in 1896, became an 
important part of the Sanitarium practice 
shortly thereafter, and an X-ray 
Department was incorporated into the 
1903 building. Kellogg used X rays to 
determine if organs were out of their nor- 
mal position, since that was an important 
indication of probable autointoxication. 
Kellogg also advocated using X rays in 
therapy, however, and was especially inter- 
ested in their use to destroy internal 

Radium, a radioactive element discov- 
ered in the late nineteenth century, 
became a popular medical cure soon there- 
after. Direct exposure to radium and water 
impregnated with radium was used thera- 
peutically for many illnesses, including 
arthritis, neuralgia, and gout. Kellogg 
introduced the use of radium at the 
Sanitarium around 1910, after visiting 
radium mines in Bohemia and studying its 
use in Europe. He called radium "the wiz- 
ard of the chemical world."^' It is not clear 
how long it was in use at the Sanitarium, 
but the practice went out of vogue in medi- 
cine generally in the early 1920s, when it 
was discovered that such uncontrolled use 
of radium is extremely hazardous to 

Patsy Gerstner 61 






•>' M, V 


S ^ 



Fig. 84. Kellogg, standing in white suit, presides at a dinner in the Annex dining room. 

Part 4 

Never Enough 

There was a steady flow of patients to 
Battle Creek from all over the United 
States and from other countries, as well- 
clerks and clothiers, attorneys and livestock 
dealers, students and brokers, and just 
about any other profession that can be 
named. They came for an average stay of 
about a month. At least one fourth were 
women, most of whom identified them- 
selves as housewives. ^^ By 1912, the 
Sanitarium began to find itself in the posi- 
tion of having to turn people away, espe- 
cially in the summer months. A $225,000 
addition to the south end of the building 
was contemplated but abandoned in favor 
of leasing an existing building in 1911, 
which was purchased for the Sanitarium in 
igiS.^^* Known as the Annex (figs. 84, 85), 
it had been built as a sanatorium by pub- 
lisher Neil Phelps and his brother. 

The Phelps saw potential in the concept 
of cereal as a healthy food, and they saw 
an opportunity to cash in on Kellogg's 
fame. Thus, they chose Battle Creek as the 
site for their Medical and Surgical 
Sanatorium. Many aspects of their pro- 
gram—including espousal of such things as 
meat and tobacco— were in total opposition 
to Kellogg's principles, however, and the 
brothers' ideas did not find a large audi- 
ence. Within four years their sanatorium 
was bankrupt. In 1905, C. W. Post (who 
had decided that Battle Creek was the 
place to develop his own health cereal) 
bought the building and leased it to 
Bernarr Macfadden, a colorful and 
flamboyant entrepreneur who was well 
known for championing muscular strength 
as a key to health. Macfadden, however, 
eventually moved his operation to 
Chicago, and Post then made the building 

Patsy Gerstner 63 

Fig. 85. 


available for the use of indigent and sick 
members of the Trades and Workers 
Association and their families.^'* When 
that venture failed, Kellogg acquired the 
building for Sanitarium purposes. 

The Annex allowed the Sanitarium to 
dispose of several guest cottages and still 
provide additional space. Moreover, the 
building provided accommodations for 
"lady helpers," particularly the nurses. The 
Ladies' Dress Department (fig. 10), where 
guests were fitted with correct clothing, 
was also moved to the Annex. 

Late in 1913, land was purchased for the 
construction of a separate hospital build- 
ing. Financing proved to be more of a chal- 
lenge than expected, and the plan was 
sacrificed in favor of buying a factory of 
the Sanitas Food Company in 1914, which 
was remodeled as a hospital (figs. 86, 87). 

In 1914 Kellogg's Sanitarium hosted the 
first annual conference of the Race 
Betterment Foundation. Among the hon- 
ored guests was the president of the 
American Medical Association. Kellogg 
was convinced that the human race was 

64 Temple of Health 

deteriorating physically, mentally, and 
morally due to bad lifestyles that included 
poor diet, lack of exercise, consumption of 
alcohol, and use of tobacco. An exhibit at 
the 1915 San Francisco Panama-Pacific 
Exposition (which was also the site of the 
second national conference), proclaimed 
that the Race Betterment Foundation was 
a "Popular Non-Sectarian Movement to 
Advance Life Saving Knowledge." Kellogg 
believed that the deterioration of the 
human race could be reversed through a 
combination of his principles of healthy 

living and eugenics (the selective mating of 
individuals to perpetuate desirable 
traits). ^^ For Kellogg, the desirable traits 
were those reflecting health. Race better- 
ment became so great a cause for Kellogg 
that in 1920 he rented Annex space to the 
Foundation offices. 

Between 1920 and 1924, the Sanitarium 
averaged slightly more than nine thousand 
guests each year (fig. 88). At peak season, 
all housing facilities in Battle Creek were 
taken by Sanitarium patients. There were 
so many requests for reservations that a 

Fig. 86. The 
new hospital 

Patsy Gerstner 65 




Fig. 87. An operating room in the Sanitarium hospital, ca. 1915, complete with the latest equipment. 
The surgical lights, which were designed to eliminate shadows, were appropriately called NOSHADO 

full-time person was hired simply to write 
letters of regret.^^ Without the full use of 
the Annex, more space was desperately 

Kellogg argued for a restrained 
approach to expansion because he was 
worried that the Sanitarium might overex- 
tend itself in spite of its popularity. 
Unfortunately, he was unable to assert his 

Kellogg was not well. He suffered a pul- 
monary illness that forced him to spend 
several months in Florida each year. In his 
absence, Dr. Charles Stewart, vice-presi- 
dent of the board of trustees and a close 
associate of Kellogg's, took charge. In spite 
of Kellogg's concerns, the Sanitarium, 
under Stewart, entered a new phase of 

Fig. 88. Horseback riding party in front of the Annex 

Patsy Gerstner 67 

Fig. 89. Artist's rendering of the 1928 Twin Towers addition (at right) to the Battle Creek Sanitarium 

Part 5 

A Moment of 
Glory, 1928 and 

A fifteen-story twin-tower addition to 
the Sanitarium and a three-story din- 
ing facility opened to the public in 1928 
(figs. 89, 90). The addition and its interior 
had a strong Italian Renaissance flavor, as 
had the 1903 building. Designed by 
Chicago architect Merritt J. Morehouse, 
the addition dominated— and continues to 
dominate— the Battle Creek skyline. 
Constructed of buff brick (to match the 
main building), it has sculptured concrete 
designs and copper roofing on the two 
towers. A thirty-two pillar colonnade, with 
copper-roofed pavilions at both ends, 
graces the front of the building. 

On entering the new building, the guest 
was greeted with an opulent interior, 
designed and furnished by Marshall Field 
and Company of Chicago. The ornate 
lobby featured columns of white Mankato 
marble with gold-veined black Italian mar- 
ble bases and gold-leafed Corinthian capi- 
tals rising two stories in height to an 
equally ornate sculptured ceiling of walnut 
ornamented with gold. Paintings of flowers 
in urns decorated the frieze. Below, the 
patterns of the carpet and upholstery were 
lavish, though muted, tending to the beige, 
brown, or dark peach and green. The 
Oriental rugs (fig. 91) were believed to be 
the first of their particular design export- 
ed to the United States. Two large gold, 
mirrored chandeliers, with eight smaller 
fixtures, provided a soft light for the 

Two marble hallways led from the main 
area of the lobby to various offices. Their 
arched entryways featured handsome 
clocks. At the rear of the lobby, ladies' and 

Patsy Gerstner 69 

Fig. 90. 
grounds with 
the new 

men's parlors (fig. 92) were found at the 
end of elegant hallways. A thickly carpeted 
mezzanine surrounded the two-story lobby 
and provided direct access to the new din- 
ing room, which measured 170' x 50' and 
could comfortably seat between seven hun- 
dred and one thousand persons. 

The dining area (fig. 93) matched the 
grandeur of the lobby. The windows were 
draped in Belgian velvet, variously 
described as peach or apricot in color, 
crewel-embroidered with gold and hung 
over antique green taffeta. The walls were 
decorated with twenty-four handpainted 
Oriental murals, each unique. The food 
served here was plentiful and inviting but 
adhered to the dietary principles of the 
Battle Creek Idea. 

Chairs and tables were of solid walnut, 
and each chair was a posture chair. Twelve 

pedestals, arranged down the middle of 
the room and around the perimeter, held 
urns of white terra-cotta, each with a palm. 
The pedestals were walnut and gold, 
topped with black Italian marble. The 
room was lighted with indirect cove light- 
ing and eight solid bronze chandeliers, 
each with one hundred lights. The center 
of the room was dominated by a seventeen- 
foot fountain. Its wooden base was made in 
New York, but the fountain proper was 
brought from Naples. Flowerboxes with 
concealed colored lights surrounded the 
fountain, and large blue-green terra-cotta 
frogs adorned the edges. When the foun- 
tain was turned on for the first time, it 
sprayed the room with water and was 
thereafter seldom used.^^ 

Food was prepared in huge, immaculate 
kitchens beneath the dining room. 

70 Temple of Health 

Fig. 91. The 

Fig. 92. The 
men 's parlor at 
the southeast 
end of the hall- 
way featured 
old oak beams. 
A fresco frieze 
surrounded the 
room, and the 
windows had 
coverings of red 

Fig. 93. The 
Towers dining 

Fig. 94. The 
Grand March 

According to Sanitarium officials, "no 
expense has been spared in securing every 
device that will insure perfect dining ser- 
vice in every detail. "^^ A special area for 
children adjoined the main dining room. 
Children of guests were not permitted to 
eat in the main room, nor were they 
expected to adhere to any special diet 
beyond the foods approved for general use 
in the Sanitarium. 

The red-tiled Sun Garden topped the 
dining room, and the pre-dinner Grand 
March, or promenade, continued (fig. 94). 
The towers boasted the finest accommoda- 
tions available, able to rival the best hotel. 
Each of the 268 guest rooms had a private 
bath, and many featured a fresh-air sleep- 
ing alcove. Each of the twelve floors used 
for guest rooms had treatment facilities, 
and a few of the larger suites had adjoining 
private treatment facilities (fig. 95). Each 
room had automatic heat controls, 
"washed-air" ventilation, running ice water 
purified by ozone, and special window 
glass that admitted the ultraviolet rays that 
Kellogg thought were so useful. Sanitarium 
treatment and activities remained very 
much as they had been, although machines 

and equipment were constantly updated. 

Of the four-million-dollar debt incurred 
during the expansion, one million was 
quickly retired. In early 1929 the outlook 
for the Sanitarium was bright, but no one 
had foreseen the coming great economic 
crash. The Depression sounded the death 
knell for the Battle Creek Sanitarium. By 
1930, the institution that could care for 
nearly fourteen hundred patients had a 
mere three hundred. ^° Interest accruing on 
the remaining debt was almost $500 a day. 
With no hope that income from paying 
guests could meet the financial obligation, 
the administration cut wages and reduced 

Stewart suggested selling the Sanitarium 
to the Seventh-day Adventist General 
Council. Kellogg, who remained the titular 
head of the Sanitarium Association but 
whose power had never been fully reassert- 
ed, objected vehemently. Nevertheless, the 
plan might have worked except that the 
General Council was experiencing its own 
financial problems and could not, realisti- 
cally, assume the Sanitarium debt. 

The Sanitarium went into receivership 
early in 1933 but continued operation. As 

74 Temple of Health 

the Depression waned, attendance picked 
up. During 1935, for example, nearly five 
thousand patients visited the Sanitarium. 
The Sanitarium was reorganized in 1938 
under a board whose membership includ- 
ed underwriters who had assumed some of 
the debt and representatives of the origi- 
nal holders of the debt and members of 
the Sanitarium Association (including 
Kellogg). The eighty-six-year-old Kellogg 
was named medical director and president, 
but he had little power. He tried desperate- 
ly to buy up Sanitarium bonds in order to 
gain more control but was unable to do so. 
He had opened a sanitarium in Miami 
(called Miami Battle Creek) in 1931 (fig. 
96), and the expenses of that facility 
stressed his ability to purchase the Battle 
Creek bonds. ^^ 

The Sanitarium continued to struggle 
with reorganization, and Kellogg contin- 


ued to try to gain control. All efforts ' ~ 

failed, and in 1942 both the 1903 building ^'S- ^^■ 

, , , ,. . , , , Towers accom- 

and the towers addition were sold to the 

federal government for $2,251,100.^^ 

The Final Reorganization 

The 1942 sale allowed the Sanitarium 


Fig. 96. Miami 
Battle Creek 

Patsy Gerstner 75 


Fig. 97. After 
the sale of the 
main buildings, 
Kellogg relocat- 
ed Sanitarium 
activities to the 
Annex and a 
building on the 
former campus 
of Battle Creek 

Association to retire the remaining debt 
and left a considerable profit. At about the 
same time, Kellogg's Battle Creek 
Sanitarium Health Food Company was dis- 
solved and its cash was transferred to the 
Sanitarium Association. Thus, its trustees 
had nearly a million dollars in unencum- 
bered cash assets. Kellogg, as president, 
was once more able to assume control. 

He moved the Sanitarium's principal 
operations to the Annex and to a building 
that had served as a library on the Battle 
Creek College campus. A wooden corridor 
was constructed to connect the two build- 
ings (fig. 97) and to provide space for the 
Race Betterment Foundation. With the 
Sanitarium in new quarters and Kellogg 
once again the principal person shaping its 
work and direction, the future looked rea- 
sonably good. 

Meanwhile, however, some Adventist 
members of the Sanitarium Association, 
convinced that funds netted from the sale 
of the building rightfully belonged to the 
Seventh-day Adventist General Council, 
were so unhappy that they started a move- 
ment to oust Kellogg. Kellogg succeeded in 
blocking the move, but on December 14, 
1943, he died at the age of ninety-one, 
leaving the future of the Sanitarium uncer- 

Two years of litigation followed, the 

Adventists contending that a portion of the 
funds of the Sanitarium belonged to them. 
A mutually agreeable settlement was 
reached in 1945, when approximately half 
of the sum realized from the sale went to 
the General Council and the Sanitarium 
was placed under the control of an inde- 
pendent, self-perpetuating board. 

In spite of ensuing efforts to revitalize 
the Sanitarium, its methods no longer 
found many followers. In a desperate strug- 
gle to attract patients, the staff reintro- 
duced meat to the menu for a short time 
in 1956.^^ Failing to succeed with such 
attempts, the Sanitarium once again went 
into receivership in 1957, after which a 
group of Seventh-day Adventist physicians 
took over operation of the Sanitarium. 
Shortly thereafter, a mental health unit 
was added and, in 1959, the Sanitarium 
was renamed the Battle Creek Health 

In the mid-1960s, an alcoholism rehabili- 
tation program was added and the name 
was changed back to the Battle Creek 
Sanitarium. In 1970, a new hospital build- 
ing was constructed. Over the next two 
years, the activities of the old Sanitarium 
were phased out, and the new hospital 
became an acute-care facility for drug- and 
alcohol-related problems. In 1974, the hos- 
pital came under the direct control of the 

76 Temple of Health 

Seventh-day Adventist General Conference 
and was renamed the Battle Creek 
Sanitarium Hospital. In 1993, the hospital 
became part of the Battle Creek Health 
System and was subsequently renamed the 
Behavioral Health Center. 

The wooden corridor constructed to 
unite the Annex and the library building 
was razed in 1973; the library building, a 
few years later. The Annex (fig. 98) was 
placed on the National Register of Historic 
Places in 1977, but in spite of a fervent 
campaign by Battle Creek preservationists, 
it was demolished in 1985. 

What Remains of the Temple Today 

After the sale in 1942 to the federal gov- 
ernment, the Sanitarium buildings became 
the Percy Jones Army Hospital for casual- 
ties of World War II and later the Korean 
War. In 1953, that facility closed, and the 
following year offices of the Federal Civil 
Defense Agency moved into the building. 
In 1959, the building was made available 
for use by additional federal agencies and 
was renamed the Battle Creek Federal 
Center, its name today. Its principal occu- 
pant is the Defense Logistics Services 
Center, responsible for the Federal Catalog 

The marble stairways in the lobby of the 
1903 building still seem imposing, and the 
room that was once the Palm Garden can 
be seen from the entrance, but the interior 
has been altered greatly to make way for 
current needs. The dining room of the 
1903 building has been divided into many 
offices, although the paintings just below 
the ceiling are visible. Those who know 
the 1903 building well can still point out 
where the great ventilating ducts brought 
in fresh air. The gymnasium and the bath 
wings— their pools long ago covered— sur- 
vive, but they are so changed that it is 

difficult to sense the past. 

The 1928 towers addition offers the visi- 
tor a more dramatic reminder of the past, 
for the lobby and its great columns, ornate 
ceiling, and light frxtures remain. The din- 
ing room is still used as such. The fountain 
has been restored (fig. 99), and Oriental 
paintings still grace the walls. Although 
those physical reminders of the Battle 
Creek Idea live on, the essence of the 
"Temple of Health" as created by John 
Harvey Kellogg died long ago. 

Fig. 98. The 
Annex in the 

Fig. 99. After 
having vanished 
from the 
Sanitarium for 
several years, the 
fountain once 
again graces the 
dining room of 
the Towers, 
which is now 
part of the Battle 
Creek Federal 
Center. The 
fountain proper 
IS the original. 
The fountain 
base has been 
restored, and 
this photograph 
is of the 

Patsy Gerstner 77 

Fig. 100. A view of Battle Creek from the Sanitarium sun roof 

Part 6 

The Battle Creek 
An Appraisal 


The Battle Creek Sanitarium was a 
unique institution. The spas, whose 
mineral waters became ever more popular 
throughout the late nineteenth and early 
twentieth centuries, were its closest rivals 
in size, but their purpose was often more 
social than medical; many carefully avoid- 
ed suggesting that sick people were among 
their visitors. The fundamental reason for 
the Battle Creek Sanitarium was to care 
for sick people, but in a special way. It was, 
according to a Sanitarium publication, the 
"center of a reform movement, the essen- 
tial principle of which is to return to 
nature and seek for those paths which lead 
men to harmony with nature and with 
themselves. "^^ The purpose of the 
Sanitarium was to care for sick people and 
to show them how to get well and stay 
well, without drugs or other artificial 
means of treatment (fig. 100). 

The Sanitarium was an enormously suc- 
cessful institution, thanks not only to 
Kellogg's personality and great public rela- 
tions skills but also to his deep belief in 
health reform, the way he operated the 
Sanitarium, and the medical program 

Kellogg was a highly skilled publicist. 
He neatly packaged the principles of 
health reform as the Battle Creek Idea, 
offered them in a facility of considerable 
gentility and charm, and successfully mar- 
keted them to the American public in a 
way that no one else had done (figs. 101, 
102, 103). He wrote dozens of books and 
gave thousands of lectures on the Battle 
Creek Idea, and the Sanitarium produced 
an unknown number of pamphlets and 

Patsy Gerstner 79 

W^^S^^ advertisemeI^TI ^^'l^^"^ 

Fig. 101. Advertisement for the Sanitas Nut Food 


MALTED NUTS i j,;'"'t'„,'^;,°',hS"ii„;;;"..m SJS. ! 

- R.E C I P E S - 



Fig. 102. This example from a Kellogg recipe book 
shows how Malted Nuts might be used 

Fig. 103. Kellogg marketed his foods widely, as 
shown by this advertisement for the Sanitarium 
Health Food Company 


Sam ple Packa ge s con taining specimen5 of each of our 

Foods^sent postpaid for go cent s. Sel ected 

Samples. 25 cents. 

SilTflPin fiEfiLTH FOOD CO., 


other pieces of advertising extolling the 
virtues of both the place and the Idea. 
Many of Kellogg's books were intended for 
the general audience; others could be used 
to teach and implement the idea at places 
other than the Sanitarium, thus bringing 
further notice to the Battle Creek phenom- 

Among his most successful advertising 
efforts were Sanitarium exhibits at the 
World's Columbian Exposition, the great 
fair held in Chicago in 1893, and the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, the 1904 
world's fair held in St. Louis. Because the 
Sanitarium exhibit was placed in the 
Education Building at the St. Louis fair, 
Kellogg and others began to refer to the 
Sanitarium as a "University of Health. "^^ 

Kellogg recognized the importance of 
endorsements from well-known personali- 
ties. Wealthy businessmen and celebrities 
came without any urging, and Kellogg 

made it easy for others by offering reduced 
rates or even free accommodations.^^ 
Henry Ford was not only a frequent visitor 
but the first guest in the 1928 Towers addi- 
tion. Other famous visitors were Presidents 
William Howard Taft and Warren G. 
Harding, comedian Eddie Cantor (fig. 
104), pianist Jose Iturbi, arctic explorer 
Roald Amundsen, industrialist John D. 
Rockefeller, grape juice manufacturer 
Edgar Welch, author Upton Sinclair, edu- 
cator Booker T. Washington, aviatrix 
Amelia Earhart, and merchandisers J. C. 
Penney, Montgomery Ward, and S. S. 
Kresge. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt (fig. 
105) was among the noted visitors, but not 
as a patient. 

Kellogg was a personable leader and 
very much involved in every aspect of 
Sanitarium activity. He lectured to guests, 
talked with them individually, encouraged 
them, and made them feel his personal 

Fig. 104. 
Eddie Cantor 
on the 

Patsy Gerstner 81 

Fig. 105. 
Roosevelt was 
among the 
famous visitors 
who toured the 

concern and supervision. Every guest must 
have felt that his or her stay was being per- 
sonally supervised by the master. Perhaps 
the thing that ultimately made the Battle 

Creek Idea so convincing to so many peo- 
ple, however, was the simple fact that 
Kellogg believed it absolutely and could 
sell the Idea with the absolute conviction 

82 Temple of Health 

that what he was doing would help people. 

Kellogg believed in the Battle Creek 
Idea in part as the result of his early expe- 
riences with Seventh-day Adventism but 
especially because of his own study. He 
was a well-trained physician and surgeon as 
well as a health reformer; a voracious read- 
er, he was thoroughly conversant with both 
medical ideas and health reform ideas. He 
found explanations in the literature that 
satisfactorily explained to him why people 
got sick if they did not live the Battle 
Creek Idea— and why they got well if they 
did. He believed without hesitation that 
sound scientific fact supported all the 
tenets of health reform. 

Kellogg's Sanitarium was a well-run busi- 
ness that was involved in its community. It 
was always in debt, but until the 
Depression its credit was good. Kellogg 
had high standards for care and for the 
condition of the facility he operated. His 
efforts in those regards were acknowl- 
edged when the Sanitarium was accredited 
by the American College of Surgeons (fig. 
106). The College began the first hospital 
accreditation plan in the United States in 
1917, the purpose of which was to judge 
whether a hospital met basic standards of 
organization, service, and patient care. 
When the first list of accredited institu- 
tions was published in 1919, the Battle 
Creek Sanitarium was on the list.^^ 

Community involvement through chari- 
table activities was also part of Sanitarium 
activity, as attested by close ties to urban 
missions, statistics of service to the poor in 
Battle Creek, and John Harvey and Ella 
Kellogg's personal acts of philanthropy 
(fig. 107). Between 1876 and 1911, four 
thousand surgical cases were treated with- 
out charge and more than fifteen thousand 
charity patients were seen for medical 
problems. Every day, the Sanitarium con- 

tributed leftover food to the needy.^^ 

There were those who questioned 
Kellogg's motives, suggesting that he was 
an entrepreneur who was making money 
by preying on the sick and by bolstering his 
own companies by the reputation of the 
Sanitarium. When the successful develop- 
ment of flaked grains brought all sorts of 
hucksters and quacks to Battle Creek try- 
ing to cash in on food and health, it was 
easy for some to see Kellogg as the patri- 
arch of all hucksters. ^^ But they were 
wrong. Kellogg did not make money from 
the Sanitarium or his companies; he did 
not prey on wealthy patients. In fact, he 
accepted no salary as the head of the 
Sanitarium, and much of the money he 
made from other enterprises was returned 
to Sanitarium use, especially to support its 
charitable activities. In 1910, Kellogg 
asserted: "[N]o person has ever received 
one cent of the profits, or earnings. There 
has been no profit-sharing. As a matter of 
fact, there have been no profits."'"" 

The ideas of health reform seemed 
vague and without foundation to most 
physicians, and the idea of autointoxica- 
tion was laid to rest by the medical com- 
munity while Kellogg was elevating it to its 
greatest importance. Nevertheless, many 
aspects of the Battle Creek Idea— particu- 
larly good diet and exercise— would find 
ready acceptance today. The simple expedi- 
ent of activity in the fresh air and sunshine 
was beneficial. The daily exercises encour- 
aged cardiovascular fitness, muscle 
strength, and flexibility; the Sanitarium 
diet— at least in its broad outlines— came 
remarkably close to meeting today's crite- 
ria for a healthy diet (fig. 108). 

Kellogg's concept of a healthy diet was 
one of the most remarkable elements of 
the Sanitarium. It led him to develop, with 
his brother, flaked grains and therefore 

Patsy Gerstner 83 


Fig. 106. 
awarded to the 
Sanitarium in 
1919 by the 
College of 





\X TllCi ] • HAS -CC )MPL1 ED W'TTU -THE A 1 1N1M\ M • S'l". \N I )ARI ) -HKCMRE- 

u\!* the iiciwrtincntf ii\.jv cKcojc lo mcrt 
M'fWr.itclv: A" tiut tlu* ~urt'ri.-\'nc«' and .inAlvnc 
.It tv^iuUr intciT.iU thciv cvpcricncc in 
;ho v.irious dcpj>"tnw\<t5 of the Uo?^'iul,5iu.h 
4* mcclicinc.iurciciT ch<tclric« and the otl\cr 
fpccuUicf ; the chnic.ll recovct- ot"i.Mtient5. 
ii-ee .met pay. <o he the h.\.*ir for *uch re\'ieir 

' \T viuviciaiis and *iifaecn-»5 

■Svilccieci to pMCticc in ti\e hos- 

;al he ^^rc^anlaed as a detnxitc 

.;-.nip .-^r <t.ift" Such 0!akWi2.M:ici\ 

\< ivothiiw tedo with the c\xic.«tion 
,^r iv^ whether the hospital ss'iSpeiV 
or cio>c<;, !!.:'" n«d it attect the \\irion5 «iscinii 
<:\'pe?ofs:att"orevUUcitticnt. ihc word STAii" 
i? here dct"inci^ ,is the Ciroup ot"doctor.< who 
practice in the ho^piul mchisivc ct all groups. 
?uch a~ the reci«Ln-*tjftVthevi5itinM.«tsR.itnd 
tlie -.-vif.-oci.ito'st.itt'." 

^ I ':!l\"r inembcrship upon the staft" be iv- 
B. : {.trictcdtophvsici.tnSi'mdsmvieotis %vho 
lire : a' f-.ill 4i-aduate5 in medieitic ii> ooo^i 
juudinci and'ieouilh' iiceiwed to practice iutheir 
respectixv ftati;? 'orpro\'incc5,',V'> competent 
in their respective tielcis., .ind ; e ■ worth\- in 
character and in truitter.* of pro!ef-?io;ul ethics; 
tlut in-thi? Utter connection ti}e pmcticc ot'the 
division offccs.underanv guise wliatjocx^er 
he pi-ohihited. 


"^ILVr the st.ift" initidte .wd.with titc .\p- 
-S.- proval of the OiOi-ernine, Ivard ot the hcj- 
pital.adopt ruler, reciul.ttions.dnd policies 
eu-vernine, t!\c proiesiional work ot the Ito.-- 
pital-jhat these niies.ree.ulations and pohcie.< 
specificallv provide .;d' that staff meetmM.* be 
_heldat ledst once c.vh moitth, in brcic hospi- 

Jiis- Certificate • granted BYAXTHORnvoFTHivBQARD 

^ OF • Regents- of -itie American Coelege- ofSxrgegns 

Ti lAl.vevir.tte .md complete records be 
written tor .\ll p.ttients .^nd tiled itv .w 
accessible niAuner in the hospital-.i complete 
c\se record bein^t one which' include* identv- 
t'icatiou dat.i, coinpUint .persoiul and tamilv 
history; history ot' present illness-, physical 
examination, speeuU ey-uninationssiich .\s 
consultations clinical laboratoiA-. .\ and 
other evaiuiirations. provisional or Mvrkiuii 
diacvnosis; nredieal or treatment, 
ciros's and microscopical pjtiioiociieal tmdmcis. 
pree,ress note?;,t'inal dlionosis , eonditio'u 
en diseharcie; iollo«>-up .ind.m case ot death. 
atitopsv tindincis. 

Ttl/Vrducinosticand therapeutic tacUitie5 
under competent super\'ision be .jv.Vibble 
tor the stiidr.diajnosis. and irc.ttraent of patients 
thv-"*-' t'-'' include, at least ^a' a clinical 
and patholoaieaUen-ieeSiib'au.Vrav department 
proi'idiiici r-tdiociiaphie and iWroseopic scn'iees. 


edible cereals. Far more than that, howev- 
er, Kellogg was a pioneer in the emerging 
science of dietetics, the study of the kinds 
and quantities of food needed for 
health.''" Although much of his interest in 
the subject had to do with autointoxica- 
tion, he was keenly aware that diet played a 
role in energy, strength, general fitness, 
weight, and management of certain dis- 
eases. Indeed, the Sanitarium had a repu- 
tation for the treatment of diabetics with 

Several special diets were developed in 
Battle Creek, but the underlying diet was a 
vegetarian one that was low in salt, high in 
fiber, and moderate in calories, with about 
30 percent of the daily calorie intake in fat, 
60 percent in energy-producing carbohy- 
drates, and 10 percent in protein. 
Although Kellogg's concept of "moderate" 
calories was about two thousand per day 
(which would be considered high for many 
people by today's standards), the meals 
served at the Sanitarium were generally 
well balanced, low in cholesterol, and rich 
in vitamins and other essential nutrients. 

While this seems reasonable to us from 
the vantage point of late-twentieth-century 
knowledge of nutrition, Kellogg had very 
little information on which to draw when 
he put his plan together. Fats, proteins, 
and carbohydrates were being studied 
extensively in the late nineteenth century, 
but there were varying ideas on the impor- 
tance of each to nutrition and how much 
of each was essential to health. Most of 
Kellogg's contemporaries believed that far 
more protein than the 10 percent Kellogg 
allowed was necessary and that the only 
way to acquire the necessary amount was 
with a meat diet. Near the end of the nine- 
teenth century, more than double the 
amount of protein recommended by 


■ } 

Fig. 107. Kellogg and his wife Ella made a kind of school of their home. 
They married in 1879, and over the following years, the couple adopted 
forty-two children. Kellogg fashioned his role as father to be one of 
teaching them the principles of healthy living. He was a stem 
disciplinarian who believed in a regimented life for the children. Part of 
his concern for healthy living was a concern for moral behavior and 
attitudes. Kellogg often wrote about what he considered moral behavior, 
especially in children, and enforced his concepts at home. 

Kellogg was accepted as standard. A few 
studies in the early twentieth century sug- 
gested that the lesser amount was sufficient 
and that it could be obtained from a vege- 
tarian diet, but it was several decades 
before vegetarianism was accepted as a 
viable dietary plan. An understanding of 
saturated and unsaturated fats was not 
available, although by stressing vegetable 
fats Kellogg gave emphasis to unsaturated 
ones. The importance of cholesterol was 

Patsy Gerstner 85 

Fig. 108. This 
holiday menu, 
which featured 
a variety of 
fruits and 
exemplified the 
diet. Protose 
was a vegetable 
product used as 
a substitute for 

Cream of String Bean Soup Creole Chowder 

Tomato Salad Ripe Olives Stuffed Celerv 

Mushrooms Allemande 

Protose with Dressing — Mint Jelly 

I -I' <,n 

French Artichokes — Drawn Butter Sauce 

90 94 

Squash on Half Shell 


Mashed Potatoes Scalloped Potatoes 

Citron Buns 


Rye Bread 


Graham Bread 


Cardinal Punch Minute Brew 

Acidophilus Buttermilk 


Henri Apricot Ice Santa Cake 

B.uihury Tarts 

Rose Pears Delicious Api^les 

III.- II,, 

Brazil Nuts 

Fig. 109. 

developed a lush, 
tropical palm 
garden in the 
rotunda. Birds 
and butterflies 
flew freely 
among the 
banana, fig and 
orange trees. 
Because glass 
separated the 
garden from the 
lobby, guests 
could enjoy the 
tropical paradise 
from any point. 
Kellogg was 
often to be found 
in or near the 
garden tending 
to one of his 
favorite orchids, 
which he had 
placed through- 
out the 

Early in the 
century, Kellogg 
adopted white as 
his wardrobe, 
claiming that it 
allowed the 
healthful rays of 
the sun to pene- 
trate to the skin 
and kill germs. 

unrecognized, although by limiting the fat 
content of the diet he lessened the choles- 
terol intake; and vitamins, although long 
suspected, were not identified until the sec- 
ond decade of the twentieth century. 

With a reasonably good diet, fresh air, 
and exercise, it is not surprising that many 
patients felt better when they left the 

Sanitarium, or that many of them returned 
time after time. Through simple means, 
Kellogg (fig. 109) taught several thousand 
people that they had a role to play in their 
own health. Many more thousands still 
believe that today, pursuing health through 
activities that are, in many ways, reminis- 
cent of the Battle Creek Idea. 

Patsy Gerstner 87 

Fig. 1 10. Ready for an excursion in the fresh air 

Part 7 

Further Reading 
and Notes 

Among the most important sources for 
information on the Sanitarium buildings, 
facilities, and activities are "The Sanitarium 
Buildings," Health Reformer, Sept. 1877, 
257-61; Description of the Medical and Surgical 
Sanitarium Located at Battle Creek, Mich. 
(Battle Creek: n.p., 1888); Battle Creek Idea, 
May 1904, 1-7; The Battle Creek Sanitarium 
Book (Battle Creek: n.p., [1912]); and all 
issues of Battle Creek Idea, especially "Elegant 
New Sanitarium Building Now Ready for 
Occupancy," Summer 1928, 6-7. For 
Kellogg's theories and methods, consult his 
major publications: The Uses of Water in 
Health and Disease (Battle Creek: Office of 
the Health Reformer, 1876); The Art of 
Massage: Its Physiological Effects and 
Therapeutic Applications (Battle Creek: 
Modern Medicine Publishing Co., 1895); The 
Ladies' Guide in Health and Disease (Battle 
Creek: Modern Medicine Publishing Co., 
1901); Rational Hydrotherapy: A Manual of the 
Physiological and Therapeutic Effects of 
Hydriatic Procedures, and the Technique of Their 
Application in the Treatment of Disease 
(Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Co., 1901); Light 
Therapeutics: A Practical Manual of 
Phototherapy for the Student and the Practitioner, 
rev. ed. (Battle Creek: Sanitarium and 
Hospital Equipment Co., 1910); The Value of 
Vibrotherapy as a Therapeutic Measure (Battle 
Creek: Good Health Publishing Co., 1913); 
Colon Hygiene: Comprising New and Important 
Facts Concerning the Physiology of the Colon and 
an Account of Practical and Successful Methods 
of Combating Intestinal Inactivity and Toxemia 
(Battle Creek: Good Health Publishing Co., 
1915); Autointoxication; or, Intestinal Toxemia 
(Battle Creek: Modern Medicine Publishing 
Co., 1922). 


1. Gerald Carson, Cornflake Crusade (New 
York: Rinehart & Company, Inc., 1957), 12. 

Patsy Gerstner 89 

2. Among many books and articles on health 
reform, see James C. Whorton, Crusaders for 
Fitness: The History of American Health Reform 
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982); 
Harvey Green, Fit for America: Health, Fitness, Sport, 
and American Society (New York: Pantheon Books, 
1986); Susan Cayleff, Wash and Be Healed: The 
Water-Cure Movement and Women's Health 
(Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987). 

3. The journal first appeared in December. It 
was a semi-monthly publication at first, becoming 
a monthly in 1848. It was published by Fowler and 
Wells of New York. 

4. On Ellen White, see Ronald L. Numbers, 
Prophetess of Health: Ellen G. White and the Origins 
of Seventh-day Adventist Health Reform (Knox\'ille: 
University of Tennessee Press, 1992), a revised 
and enlarged edition of Ronald L. Numbers and 
Janet S. Numbers, Prophetess of Health: A Study of 
Ellen G. White (New York: Harper & Row, 1975). 

5. "Articles of Association," in Minutes of the 
Board of Directors of the Health Reform Institute, April 
25, 1867-October 8, 1876, Combined Collection of 
Garth ("DufP) Stoltz, Battle Creek, and Advenfist 
Heritage Ministry, Silver Spring, Md. (hereafter 
cited as Combined Stolz/ Adventist Heritage 
Ministry Collection). 

6. As quoted in Numbers, Prophetess of Health 
(1992), 105. 

7. Ibid., 105-9. 

8. Ibid., 102-28; Richard William Schwarz, 
John Harvey Kellogg, M.D. (1970; rpt. Berrien 

Springs, Mich.: Andrews University Press, 1981), 
27 (based on Schwarz, /o/ire Harvey Kellogg: 
American Health Reformer [Ph.D. diss.. University of 
Michigan, 1964]). 

9. Schwarz,7oAn Harvey Kellogg, M.D., 27-32. 

10. Ibid., 61. 

11. Minutes of the Board of Directors, Aug. 17, 
1874, and April 8, May 26, Aug. 18, 1875. 

12. As quoted in Schwarz, /o^?z Harvey Kellogg 
M.D., 62. 

13. Description of the Medical and Surgical 
Sanitarium Located at Battle Creek, Mich. (Battle 
Creek: n.p., 1888), 14. 

14. Kellogg, "A Talk to Women," Battle Creek 
Idea, Mar. 3, 1911, 1. Filled with details of 
Sanitarium events and operations. Battle Creek Idea 
was published sporadically until Dec. 12, 1907, 
when it became a weekly. 

15. Kellogg, The Ladies' Guide in Health and 
Disease (Battle Creek: Modern Medicine 

Publishing Co., 1901), 263-66. 

16. Minutes of the Board of Directors, April 18, 

17. "The Sanitarium Buildings," Health Reformer 
12 (1877): 257. 

18. Ibid., 260. 

19. The Household Manual of Health (Battle 
Creek: Good Health Publishing Co., 1891), 205. 

20. "Sanitarium Buildings," 261. 

21. Description of the Medical and Surgical 
Sanitarium, 9. 

22. Ibid., 29. 

23. The Battle Creek Sanitarium Book (Battle 
Creek: n.p., [1912]), 123. 

24. Description of the Medical and Surgical 
Sanitarium, 26. 

25. Nature's Foods (Battle Creek: Sanitarium 
Healdi Food Company, 1899), 9. 

26. After cornflakes were developed, another 
company called the Battle Creek Toasted Corn 
Flake Company was opened under the direction 
of W. K. Kellogg. In 1907, John Harvey decided to 
change the name of Sanitas to the Kellogg Food 
Company, and W. K. changed the name from 
Battle Creek Toasted Com Flake Company to the 
Kellogg Toasted Corn Flake Company. For the 
next several years, the brothers argued in court 
over who had the right to use the Kellogg name. 
In 1920, the court gave the right to W. K. See 
Schwarz,7o;zn Harvey Kellogg M.D., 209-19. 

27. Ibid., 122. 

28. Ibid., 97-99. 

29. Ibid., 99-100. 

30. Ibid., 104-6. 

31. Ibid., 164-66. 

32. Ibid., 166. 

33. Ibid., 140. 

34. Ibid., 65-66. 

35. Ibid., 68-69. 

36. Ibid., 66-67. 

37. Ibid., 68. 

38. Clipping dated Feb. 19, 1902, Newspaper 
Clipping File, Willard Librar)', Batde Creek (here- 
after cited as Willard Library Clipping File); 
Description of the Medical and Surgical Sanitarium, 8; 
"Sanitarium Buildings," 261. 

39. Undated items, Willard Librar)' Clipping 
File. Although the file is rich widi bits of informa- 
tion about the Sanitarium, many clippings are not 
identified or dated; nevertheless, it is not difficult 
to date them by their contents. According to 
Schwarz (John Harvey Kellogg, M.D., 71), the value 

90 Temple of Health 

of the property was $350,000. 

40. Willard Library Clipping File. 

41. Schwarzjo/jre Harvey Kellogg M.D., 70-73. 

42. A Great Philanthropic Enterprise: Report on the 
Battle Creek Sanitarium by the Citizens' Committee 
(Battle Creek: n.p., n.d.), 8. 

43. Ibid. 

44. Ibid., 14. 

45. Schwarz notes that many pledges were 
never paid and that much of the new Sanitarium 
was financed by the Sanitarium Food Company 
and by KeUogg's private companies. Kellogg later 
gave the amount raised from Battle Creek resi- 
dents as $27,000. Schwarz, John Harvey Kellogg, 
M.D., 72-74; "Sanitarium Not Ousted," Battle 
Creek Idea, May 13, 1910, 3. 

46. "The New Temple of Health" and "A 
Visitor's Glance at the Inside of the New 
Sanitarium," Battle Creek Idea, May 1904, 1-2, 4. 

47. Schwarz,/o/in Harvey Kellogg, M.D., 126. 

48. "New Temple of Health." 

49. Ibid. 

50. Battle Creek Sanitarium Book, 29. 

51. "New Temple of Health." 

52. C^ivson, Cornflake Crusade, 114. 

53. The 1910 figures are from "Purveying for 
the Sanitarium," Battle Creek Idea, Jan. 21, 1910, 
3-4; the 1921 figures are from a document in the 
Combined Stolz/Adventist Heritage Ministry 

54. "Laundering for the Sanitarium," Battle 
Creek Idea, Mar. 10, 1911,4. 

55. Battle Creek Idea, ]?in. 23, 1908, 3. 

56. "The Sanitarium Dispensary," Battle Creek 
Idea, Feb. 18, 1910, 3. 

57. Minutes of the Michigan Sanitarium and 
Benevolent Association, June 26, 1913, Combined 
Stolz/Adventist Heritage Ministry Collection. 

58. Ibid., July 22, 1912. 

59. Schwarz,7o/in Harvey Kellogg M.D., 74. 

60. Kellogg's books on the subject include 
Colon Hygiene (Battle Creek: Good Health 
Publishing Co., 1915), Autointoxication; or. 
Intestinal Toxemia (Battle Creek: Modem Medicine 

Fig. 111. An 
exercise class at 
the entrance to 
the 1903 build- 

Patsy Gerstner 91 

Publishing Co., 1922), and The Itinerary of a 
Breakfast (New York: Funk and Wagnalls Co., 
1920). That Kellogg accepted autointoxication 
between 1891 and 1898 is based on the lack of 
mention in his 1891 Monitor of Health and his dis- 
cussion in Rational Hydrotherapy (Philadelphia: F. 
A. Davis Co., 1901), which was written between 
1898 and 1899. 

61. For a summary of ideas on autointoxica- 
tion, see Robert P. Hudson, "Theory and 
Therapy: Ptosis, Stasis and Autointoxication," 
Bulletin of the History of Medicine 63 (1980): 
392-413. Patients with tuberculosis were accepted 
before 1890, but after the turn of the century the 
Sanitarium did not admit anyone with a communi- 
cable illness. Medical and Surgical Sanitarium, 14; 
Battle Creek Sanitarium Book, 19. 

62. See, for example, Kellogg, "Surgery of the 
Ileo/Cecal Valve," Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 
17 (1913): 563-76. 

63. "Examination of Patients," Battle Creek Idea, 
Jan. 7, 1910, 1, 6. 

64. Battle Creek Sanitarium Book, 140. 

65. Kellogg frequendy mentioned the necessity 
of three or four movements a day; see, for exam- 
ple, Itinerary of a Breakfast, 23. 

66. A copy of the lyrics and music is in the 
Combined Stolz/Adventist Heritage Ministry 

67. L. Mazzuchelli, "Dr. Zander's Apparatus for 
Medico-Mechanical Gymnastics," International 
Journal of Surgery and Antiseptics 1 (1888): 235-41. 

68. On Kellogg's stay in Wilmington and the 
exhibit, see Carson, Cornflake Crusade, 94-95. He 
may have ordered some Zander equipment from 
Sweden after returning from his trip because his 
article "A Hygenist Abroad" {Good Health, Aug. 
1883, 246-49) refers to equipment being sent. 

69. "The Battle Creek Mechanical Horse," 
Bulletin No. 8 (Battle Creek: Sanitarium 
Equipment Co., n.d.). 

70. See, for example. Battle Creek Sanitarium 
Book, 80-81. 

71. "Observations on the Relation of Posture to 
Health and a New Method of Studying Posture 
and Development," pamphlet reproduced from 
the Bulletin of the Battle Creek Sanitarium and 
Hospital Clinic 22 (1927), copy in Combined 
Stolz/Adventist Heritage Ministry Collection. 

72. A copy of the recording (manufactured in 
1923 by Columbia Records under the title "Health 
Ladder") and the book are in the Combined 

Stolz/Adventist Heritage Ministry Collection. 
According to August F. Bloese, Kellogg's secre- 
tary, the recording was never distributed; August 
F. Bloese, August F. Bloese, Former Secretary to Dr. 
John Harvey Kellogg, in First Person: An Oral History 
(Ann Arbor, Mich.: L. E. Weeks, 1985), 72. 
Columbia Records has not been able to provide 
additional information. 

73. "Electricity as Used at the Sanitarium," 
Battle Creek Idea, Mar. 12, 1908, 2, and "Electrical 
Treatment at the Sanitarium," Battle Creek Idea, 
Aug. 6, 1908, 3. 

74. Kellogg, "Mineral Springs," Health Reformer 
10 (1875): 274. 

75. Kellogg, The Uses of Water in Health and 
Disease (Battle Creek: Office of the Health 
Reformer, 1876), 78. 

76. Kellogg, Rational Hydrotherapy, 556-58. For 
comfort during the long bath, he recommended 
suspending the patient in a hammock or provid- 
ing a soft mat of excelsior. 

77. Battle Creek Sanitarium Book, 30. 

78. For more information on Kellogg's light, 
baths, see Schwarz,yoA7i Harvey Kellogg M.D., 125, 
and Sidney Licht, "History of Therapeutic Heat," 
in Therapeutic Heat, ed. Licht (Baltimore: Waverly 
Press, 1958), 179-210. 

79. For Kellogg's ideas on light, see his Light 
Therapeutics, rev. ed. (Battle Creek: Good Health 
Publishing Co., 1910). For general background, 
see Sidney Licht, "History of Ultraviolet Therapy," 
in Therapeutic Electricity and Ultraviolet Radiation, 
ed. Licht, 2nd ed. (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 
1967), 191-211. 

80. Battle Creek Sanitarium Book, 70, 166. 

81. Ibid., 6; Battle Creek Sanitarium (Battle 
Creek: Good Health Publishing Co., n.d.), copy in 
Combined Stolz/Adventist Heritage Ministry 

82. Annual Report of the Battle Creek Sanitarium 
and Hospital with Summaries of the Work of the 
Institution Since Its Establishment (Battle Creek: 
Printed by order of the Trustees, 1910). 

83. On the purchase, see Willard Library 
Clipping File, Feb. 4, 1913. 

84. Robert Ernst, Weakness Is a Crime: The Life 
of Bemarr Mcfadden (Syracuse: Syracuse University 
Press, 1991). On the use of the building for the 
workers and their families, see Willard Library 
Clipping File, Feb. 4, 1913. 

85. Proceedings of the First National Conference on 
Race Betterment . . . 1914, Battle Creek, Michigan 

92 Temple of Health 

Fig. 112. 
Hollyhocks in 
bloom around 
the 1903 

(Battle Creek: Gage Printing Company, Ltd., 
1914), 431-50, 564, 579-80, 583, 584; Official 
Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Race 
Betterment . . . San Francisco, California (Battle 
Creek: Race Betterment Foundation, 1915). See 

also Kellogg's views in "We Are a Dying Race," 
Battle Creek Idea, Nov. 11 (1-2), 18 (1-3), 1910; 
"Necessity for National Health Reform" and "The 
Causes of Race Degeneracy," Battle Creek Idea, July 
21, 1911, 1-4; and "Degeneracy of Mankind," 

Patsy Gerstner 93 

Battle Creek Idea, Oct. 27, 1911, 1-2. Kellogg was 
also interested in the relation of moral values and 
health. See, for example, his Plain Facts for Old and 
Fbwn^ (Batde Creek: n.p., 1877, 1886). 

86. hloese, August F. Bloese, 11^. 

87. "Elegant New Sanitarium Building Now 
Ready for Occupancy," Battle Creek Idea, Summer, 
1928, 6-7. 

88. The description of the dining room is from 
Leta Browning, "The Venetian Dining Room," 
typescript in WiUard Library. Information on the 
fountain was given to me by Doris Longman, a 
1931 graduate of Battle Creek College who 
worked at the Sanitarium while she was a student; 
Longman to author, Feb. 9, 1994. 

89. "Elegant New Sanitarium Building," 7. 

90. For the history of the demise of the 
Sanitarium, see Schwarz, yo/i« Harvey Kellogg, 
M.D., 230-41. 

91. The Miami Batde Creek property was given 
to Kellogg for a Sanitarium branch by Glen 
Curtiss, an aviauon manufacturer. Ibid., 80. 

92. A brief history of the changes in the build- 
ing ownership is John E. Buchmeier, A Tour 
Through the Past & Present of the Battle Creek Federal 
Center (Battle Creek: Batde Creek Federal Center, 

93. WiUard Ubrary Clipping File, April 4, 1956. 

94. The Reason Why of the Battle Creek 
Sanitarium Ideas about Diet: The Battle Creek 
Sanitarium System of Health Culture; The World-wide 
Extension and Popularity of the Battle Creek Idea 

(Battle Creek: Gage Printing Co., Ltd., 1910). 

95. "A University of Health," Battle Creek Idea, 
Sept. 8, 1911, 1-2. 

96. Schwarz, /o/in Harvey Kellogg M.D., 75. 

97. Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons 4 
(1919): 27. 

98. Annual Report of the Battle Creek Sanitarium 
(Battle Creek: Printed by Order of the Trustees, 
1911), 33; Annual Report of the Battle Creek 
Sanitarium (Battle Creek: Printed by Order of the 
Trustees, 1922), 10; "Sanitarium Dispensary," 3. 

99. A recent attempt to use the Sanitarium to 
poke some fun at the health food industry paints 
an unflattering picture of Kellogg. It is T. 
Coraghessan Boyle, The Road to Wellville (New 
York: Viking, 1993). The author's interpretation 
presents a far-fetched and inaccurate picture of 
the Sanitarium and Kellogg. 

100. "Sanitarium Not Ousted," 2. 

101. Kellogg made instruction in diet therapy 
part of the curriculum of his various schools from 
1878, and the principal purpose of the School of 
Health and Home Economics (established in 
1905) was to train dietitians. Graduates of the 
Battle Creek schools were among the leaders in 
dietetics. Leena Frances Cooper, a 1901 graduate 
of the Training School of Nurses, wrote a classic 
textbook in dietetics, was a founder of the 
American Dietetic Association in 1917, served as 
supervising dietitian for the U.S. Army, and was 
chief dietitian at Montefiore Hospital in New York 

94 Temple of Health 

Fig. 113. The 

Picture Credits 

The Battle Creek Sanitarium had its own 
photographic studio that produced thou- 
sands of images used for publicity purposes 
and for the many books written by the 
Sanitarium's director, John Harvey Kellogg. 
Some of the illustrations used in this book 
are taken directly from the publication in 
which they appeared, but most are from 
photographs in the studio collection, which 
is now part of the Combined Collection of 
Garth ("Duff) Stoltz of Battle Creek and the 
Adventist Heritage Ministry of Silver Spring, 
Maryland. Although most of the studio pho- 
tographs appeared in one or more publica- 
tions, no attempt is made here to cite 
specific publications in which they appeared 
unless the publication was the sole source of 
the picture reproduced in this book. 

Cover: This artist's rendering of the 
Sanitarium entrance was the cover of The 
Sanitarium (n.p., n.d.), a small booklet pub- 
lished probably around 1920. The booklet 
also contains a 1913-copyrighted map of rail- 
road routes to the Sanitarium. The booklet is 
in the Combined Collection of Garth 
("Duff) Stoltz and the Adventist Heritage 

Figures 1, 13: Sanitarium Souvenir (Battle 
Creek: n.p., n.d.). 

Figure 2: John Harvey Kellogg, Uses of 
Water in Health and Disease (Battle Creek: 
Office of the Healdi Reformer, 1876). 

Figure 3: John Harvey Kellogg, Plain Facts 
for Old and Young (Burlington, Iowa: Segner 
& Condit, 1881). 

Figure 4: The Water-Cure Journal and 
Herald of Reforms, Devoted to Physiology, 
Hydropathy, and the Laws of Life 20 (July 

Figures 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 
24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 
36, 37 (tracing from a plat book), 38, 39, 40, 
41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50 (actual 

object), 51 (actual object), 52, 53, 54, 55, 59, 
60, 61, 62, 63 (actual object), 64, 67, 68, 69, 
70, 71, 72, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92, 
94, 95, 96, 97, 98 (original by Robert J. 
Anderson & Co., Detroit), 100, 101, 104, 
105, 106 (actual object), 107, 108, 109, 110, 
111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116: Combined 
Collection of Garth ("Duff) Stoltz and the 
Adventist Heritage Ministry. 

Figures 6, 56: Charles F. Taylor, Theory 
and Practice of the Movement Cure 
(Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, 1861). 

Figures 8, 14, 15, 18, 19: Description of the 
Medical and Surgical Sanitarium Located at 
Battle Creek, Michigan (Battle Creek: n.p.. 

Figure 12: "The Sanitarium Building," 
Health Reformer, Sept., 1877. 

Figures 23, 93: Photographs from the Dr. 
Carl Martinson Library, courtesy of Elmer J. 
Martinson, M.D., Wayzata, Minn. 

Figure 37: Author's tracing from a plat 
book in the Combined Collection of Garth 
("Duff) Stoltz and the Adventist Heritage 

Figure 47: John Harvey Kellogg, The Battle 
Creek Sanitarium Diet List (Battle Creek: 
Good Health Publishing Co., 1916). 

Figure 50: Photograph by Jim Edmonson, 
Cleveland, of object in the Combined 
Collection of Garth ("Duff) Stoltz and the 
Adventist Heritage Ministry. 

Figures 51, 63, 106: Photographs by Glen 
Cemer, Battle Creek, of objects in the 
Combined Collection of Garth ("Duff") 
Stoltz and the Adventist Heritage Ministry. 

Figures 57, 58: John Harvey Kellogg, "The 
Home Gymnasium: Mechanical Exercise," 
Good Health 'i\ (1896). 

Figures 65, 66: The Battle Creek Sanitarium 
Book (Battle Creek: n.p. [ca. 1912]). 

96 Temple of Health 

Fig. 114. Checking into the Sanitarium 

Figures 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81: 
John Harvey Kellogg, Rational Hydrotherapy 
(PhUadelphia: F. A. Davis Co., 1901). 

Figure 80: John Harvey Kellogg, Light 
Therapeutics: A Practical Manual of 
Phototherapy for the Student and the Practi- 
tioner, rev. ed. (Batde Creek: Sanitarium and 
Hospital Equipment Co., 1910). 

Figure 89: "Elegant New Sanitarium 
Building Now Ready for Occupancy," Battle 
Creek Idea, Summer 1928. 

Figure 90: John E. Buchmeier, A Tour 

Through the Past & Present of the Battle Creek 
Federal Center (Battle Creek: Battle Creek 
Federal Center, 1987). 

Figure 99: Photograph by Glen Cemer, 
Battle Creek. 

Figure 102: Recipes for Everybody (Battle 
Creek: Battle Creek Food Company, n.d.). 

Figure 103: William H. Armstrong & 
Company Catalog of Surgical Instruments 
(Indianapolis: Levey Bros. & Co., Printers, 

Patsy Gerstner 97 

Fig. 115. The Sanitarium in winter 

About the Author 

The author is the Chief Curator of the 
Dittrick Medical History Center, which 
includes a medical history museum, an 
archives, and a rare book collection. She 
has a Ph.D. in the History of Science and 
is an Adjunct Associate Professor of 
History at Case Western Reserve 
University. In addition to her interest in 
medical history, she has done research in 
the history of geology, and in 1994 her 
book Henry Darwin Rogers, 1808-1866, 
American Geologist was published by the 
University of Alabama Press. Her interest 
in the Battle Creek Sanitarium developed 
after a brief phone call, as she describes in 
the following: 

One morning several years ago, I 
received a phone call from a journalist 
who was in this country to work on a 
British television documentary on the 
cereal industry. While in Battle Creek to 
visit the Kellogg Company and gain insight 
into its history, she was introduced to 
Garth "Duff" Stoltz. Duff, who works for 
the modern hospital descendant of the 
Sanitarium, has been collecting Sanitarium 
memorabilia for many, many years, both 
for himself and for the historical archives 
of the Seventh-day Adventists. He has 
amassed a very large collection of equip- 

ment (from Indian Clubs to abdominal- 
kneading machines), Sanitarium publica- 
tions, and photographs. It is a collection 
that reflects the entire history of the 

The British visitor was quite impressed 
and wanted to be sure that people in the 
United States who work with medical histo- 
ry collections, as I do, knew about it. I was 
one of the people she contacted. At the 
time I knew very little about the 
Sanitarium, but I was intrigued. I arranged 
to visit Battle Creek to see Duff's collec- 
tion. I was unsure of just what lay in store 
for me, but on the way to see his collec- 
tion, I got my first look at the Sanitarium 
buildings— and from that moment I was 
fascinated. His collection— especially the 
photographs— reinforced the fascination. 
There are, I suspect, several thousand pho- 
tographs, documenting nearly every aspect 
of Sanitarium activity. Many of them were 
rescued by Duff from certain destruction 
when the Annex was demolished in 1985. 

Once I saw the photographs, I knew that 
I wanted to prepare a pictorial history of 
this institution so that others could learn 
about it, for certainly the Sanitarium was 
one of the grandest experiments in health 
care in the nineteenth and twentieth cen- 

Patsy Gerstner 99 

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Fig. 1 15. This photograph shows students from the Normal School of Physical Education, one of many 
departments of the Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Michigan.